anatomy review

anatomy review - Ch.1(Introduction Anatomy which means a...

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Ch.1: (Introduction) Anatomy- which means “a cutting open,” is the study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationships among body parts. Physiology- another Greek term, is the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions. Gross anatomy- or macroscopic anatomy, involves the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye Organ systems- are groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner. Embryology- The study of these early developmental processes (first 2 months of development) Microscopic anatomy: deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification. Cytology- is the analysis of the internal structure of individual cells, the simplest units of life Histology- is the examination of tissues- groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to percform specific functions. -Tissues combine to form organs, such as the heart, kidney, liver or brain. Human physiology- is the study of the functions of the human body The chemical (or Molecular) Level – Atoms, the smallest stable units of matter, can combine to form molecules with complex shapes. The Cellular Level – Molecules can interact to form various types of organelles, each type of which has specific functions The Tissue Level- A tissue is a group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions. The organ level- Organs consist of two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions. The organ system level- Organs interact in organ systems. The organism level- An organism in this case, a human, is the highest level of organization. Homeostasis (homeo, unchanging + stasis, standing) refers to the existence of a stable internal environment. Autoregulation- or intrinsic regulation, occurs when a cell, a tissue, an organ, or an organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to some environmental change. Extrinsic regulation- results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system, two organ systems that control or adjust the activities of many other systems simultaneously. Receptor- a sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change, or stimulus. Control center- or integration center, which receives and processes the information supplied by the receptor, and which sends out commands
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Effector- a cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity either opposes or enhances the stimulus. Positive feedback- an initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions, rather than opposing it. State of equilibrium- exists when opposing processes or forces are in balance. Anatomical Regions: abdominopelvic quadrants- formed by a pair of imaginary perpendicular lines that
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anatomy review - Ch.1(Introduction Anatomy which means a...

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