Chapter 2 Small Molecules

Chapter 2 Small Molecules - charges. a. Atoms are unstable...

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Chapter 2: Small Molecules I. Elements and Orbitals a. Isotopes: Any element with the same # of but different number of . b. Electron Orbitals i. Only electrons occupy an orbital; with these orbitals, we get BONDS II. Covalent Bonds (CB’s) a. 2 atoms one or more pairs of i. Examples: b. Polar CB: sharing of electrons due to i. Example: c. Non-polar CB: sharing of electrons. i. Example: NON-COVALENT BONDS III. Hydrogen bonds: sharing of . a. Very important in biological structures, such as , , and (thus a good solvent). IV. Ionic Bonds: attraction of
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Unformatted text preview: charges. a. Atoms are unstable if orbitals are . b. Example: V. Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Interactions a. Hydrophilic: water . Usually molecules. b. Hydrophobic: water Usually molecules. VI. Van der Waals Interactions: interaction of electrons of VII. Functional Groups a. Hydroxyl: b. Carboxyl: c. Amino: VIII. Acids and Bases a. Acids: proton (H+) b. Bases: proton (H+) IX. Isomers a. Structural: same of elements but different b. Optical: same number of elements but images....
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Chapter 2 Small Molecules - charges. a. Atoms are unstable...

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