Chapter 47 The Nervous System

Chapter 47 The Nervous System - CNS and PNS CNS: Central...

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CNS : Central nervous system Encased in bone Brain and spinal cord PNS : Peripheral nervous system Not encased in bone Spinal nerves (motor and sensory) Cranial nerves (motor and sensory Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) CNS and PNS
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Nuclei and ganglia In the central nervous system (CNS), a related group of neurons is called a nucleus . In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), a related group of neurons is called a ganglion . How does one “see” nuclei and ganglia? Histology involves staining of cells, fibers, or gray matter. Cell nuclei can be seen by staining “Nissl substance”, specifically DNA and RNA. Fibers can be seen with stains for myelin. Enzymes may be stained by histochemical methods that take advantage of the reaction catalyzed by that enzyme. Alternatively, virtually any protein can be visualized with fluorescently labeled antibodies .
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Visualizing neurons German neuroanatomists applied aniline dyes that had been developed for textiles, dyes with a “basic” character. These dyes stained “Nissl” substance – nucleic acids – and showed a forest of cell bodies (C above). Beginning ~1890 Santiago Ramon y Cajal applied a silver stain developed by Camillo Golgi to individual neurons, revealing that neurons were individual units (A).
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A nerve contains many axons, afferent and efferent A nerve is a bundle of many axons carrying information to and from the central nervous system.     Afferent: to a spot Efferent: from a spot
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Development The vertebrate nervous system develops from a hollow dorsal neural tube. The brain forms from three swellings at its anterior end, which become the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.
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Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain The forebrain develops into the cerebral hemispheres (telencephalon), the underlying thalamus and hypothalamus (diencephalon), and the eyes . The midbrain and hindbrain develop into the brain stem and cerebellum . Conscious experience is localized in the cerebrum, primitive & autonomic functions in the brain stem.
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Development The forebrain develops into cerebral hemispheres ( telencephalon ), underlying thalamus and hypothalamus ( diencephalon ), and eyes . The midbrain becomes the superior (vision) and inferior (audition) colliculi . The hindbrain develops into brainstem structures ( pons , the medulla , and the cerebellum) . Together, the midbrain and hindbrain are known as the brainstem . Conscious experience is localized in the cerebrum, primitive & autonomic functions in the brain stem, and muscular coordination in the cerebellum.
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A tour: input, processing, output
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Input (spinal nerves, cranial nerves, hormones) Senses in the head (e.g., eyes and ears) and internal organs enter as some of the 12 cranial nerves. (DO NOT MEMORIZE.) Some examples: smell – cranial nerve I (olfactory) vision – cranial nerve II (optic) eye movements – oculomotor III, trochlear IV, and abducens VI somatosensory from face – cranial nerve V (trigeminal) taste – cranial nerves VII (facial) and IX (glossopharyngeal)
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course LS 2 taught by Professor Pires during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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Chapter 47 The Nervous System - CNS and PNS CNS: Central...

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