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Theology Final Review- People of God book

Theology Final Review- People of God book - Ch 10 The End...

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Ch. 10 - The End of Catholic Middle Ages (ca. AD 1300 - 1500) The 14th and 15th Centuries: Low Point of Western Christianity! Overview: o contrast to the "high point" in the 12th and 13th Centuries (see ch. 7-8 above) o huge problems both in the Church and in the world; leads to overall feelings of despair, gloom; apocalyptic expectations o yet also the beginning of the Renaissance - a "rebirth" of culture, art, science, technology, learning, individualism, nationalism, etc. o and in the East, the center of Orthodox Christianity shifts from Byzantine Empire (Constantinople) to the Slavic Nations (esp. Moscow) Huge Problems in the Church: o The "Babylonian Captivity" of the Papacy (1305-1377) ; a.k.a. the Avignon Papacy after Pope Boniface VIII dies (1303), French King (Philip IV, 1285-1314) forces cardinals to move from Rome to Avignon (S. France) seven Popes rule from Avignon; mostly corrupt, puppets of French monarchy (see "Timeline" in Gilles, p. 216, for names and dates) many people try to convince the Pope to return to Rome, esp. Catherine of Siena (d. 1380) finally, Pope Gregory XI, flees Avignon and returns to Rome in 1377; but not all cardinals go with him; he dies in 1378. o The "Western Schism" (1378-1417) - period of two or three simultaneous Popes (or "Anti-Popes") [ caution : don't confuse this with the "Great Schism": the division between Western/Catholic and Eastern/Orthodox Christianity in 1054!] when Gregory XI dies, the cardinals in Rome elect a successor, but the cardinals who remained in Avignon also elect a successor: the Roman Line: "Popes" Urban VI (1378-89); Boniface IX (1389-1404); Innocent VII (1404-06); Gregory XII (1406-15; d. 1417) the Avignon Line: "Anti-Popes" Clement VII (1378-94); Benedict XIII (1394- 1423); Clement VIII (1423-29); Benedict XIV (1430-37); Felix V (1439-49) o Attempts at Church Reform: "Conciliarism" Having two simultaneous Popes caused great confusion (people ask: Which one is legitimate? Which one should we obey?) So the "Conciliar Movement" grew, claiming that the Church's ultimate authority, even above the Pope, is a "Council" Council of Pisa (1409) tried to end the papal schism by deposing both the Roman and Avignon Popes and electing a new "Pope" but neither Gregory XII in Rome nor Benedict XIII in Avignon resigned; result: now three men claimed to be Pope! the Pisan Line: "Anti-Popes" Alexander V (1409-1410), succeeded by John XXIII (1410-1415) Council of Constance (1414-17) - finally cleans up the mess, ending the Western Schism (for the most part) they convince both John XXIII and Gregory XII to resign (but not Benedict XIII in Avignon!), and elect Pope Martin V (1417-31), who promises to convene councils regularly (but doesn't!) Huge Problems in Western Society overall: o "Black Death" or Bubonic Plague (1330's-52) - kills about 1/3 of Europe's population; God's punishment? growth in witchcraft/superstition
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o Peasant Revolts - esp. 1381 in England, but also throughout much of the 14th century, along with several severe famines, social unrest o Hundred Years War (actually longer: 1337-1453) - mainly England vs. France (Joan of Arc, d. 1431), but involves most of Europe!
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Theology Final Review- People of God book - Ch 10 The End...

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