Final Exam Review

Final Exam Review - Chapter 19: Urinary System 1. Kidney:...

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Chapter 19: Urinary System 1. Kidney: a. Anatomy: i. Retroperitoneal organ: meaning that it is behind the parietal peritoneum ii. External anatomy: lateral surface is convex, medial surface is concave 1. Hilus – vertical cleft on the medial surface; where vessels, ureters, and nerves enter and leave the kidney 2. Renal Capsule: adheres directly to kidney surface a. maintaining shape b. Forms barrier that inhibits spread of infection iii. Internal anatomy: 1. Cortex: more superficial, light colored with granule appearance 2. Medulla: consists of cone-shaped masses known as renal pyramids that contain urine-collecting tubules 3. Lobe = medullary pyramid + adjacent cortex 4. Urine is collected in the renal pelvis b. Functions: i. Filter the blood ii. Regulate blood volume and chemistry iii. Secrete hormones 2. Nephron: Functional unit, produces urine through filtration, resorption, and secretion a. Glomerulus + capsule + tubules b. Filtration occurs into capsule c. Filtrate passes to tubules i. Filtrate in tubes continually exchanging molecules with surrounding fluid/blood d. Steps: i. Filtration: filtrate of the blood leave the kidney capillaries and enters renal tubule
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ii. Resorption: most of the nutrients, water, and essential ions are recovered from the filtrate and returned to the blood of capillaries. The remaining wastes contribute to urine iii. Secretion: moves additional undesirable molecules into tubule from blood e. Fluid flow through Nephron: i. Proximal convoluted tubule: 1. In renal cortex 2. Most active in resorption and secretion 3. Cuboidal epithelial cells ii. Descending limb of loop of Henle: 1. Continuous with proximal tubule 2. Epithelial cells iii. Ascending limp of loop of Henle 1. Starts as thin segment, Permeable squamous epithelium 2. ends as thick segments, subcoidal epithelium iv. Distal convoluted tubule: 1. In renal cortex 2. Simple cuboidal epithelium 3. Specialized for the selective secretion and resorption of ions v. Collecting Ducts 1. Fxn to conserve body fluids 2. Drain into calices
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3. Ureters a. Transport urine to urinary bladder i. 1. Urine entering ureter stimulates it to distend, causing its muscularis to contract, causing peristaltic waves to propel urine to the bladder b. Wall of tube has 3 layers: i. Mucosa 1. Transitional epithelium + elastic connective tissue ii. Muscularis 1. 2 layers of smooth muscle a. Inner longitudinal layer b. Outer circular layer of smooth muscle 2. 3 rd layer towards bottom of ureter a. Exterior longitudinal layer iii. Adventitia 1. Outer connective tissue 4. Bladder a. Stores and expels urine b. Bladder wall has 3 layers i. Mucosa: 1. Transitional Epithelium ii. Muscularis: contraction of this sqeezes urine out of body 1. 2 layers of smooth muscle a. Inner longitudinal layer b. Outer circular layer of smooth muscle
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2. 3 rd layer a. Exterior longitudinal layer 3.
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Final Exam Review - Chapter 19: Urinary System 1. Kidney:...

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