Exam 2 Study Guide
Chapters 9-13; readings on culture
Wall Street Journal
articles announced in Blackboard for the weeks of: February
28, March 7, and March 21.
Bustillo, M. (2009, August 14). After early errors, Wal-Mart thinks locally to act
Wall Street Journal
, p. A1.
Commanding Heights: Episode 3
Any video clips shown in class
Terms and Concepts:
The complex whole that includes knowledge. belief, art, morals, law, custom, and other
capabilities acquired by a person as a member of society
Values and Attitudes
Abstract ideas about what a society believes to be good, right, and desirable.
Our values come
from the culture we are a part of, and in turn, the values we have form our attitudes, eventually
leading into behavior.
The belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and
behavioral levels. This supports the theory that environmental influences dominate who we are
instead of biologically inherited traits.
The Iceberg Model of Culture-
You have 3 parts, the surface, the unspoken rules, and the unconscious rules.
The unconscious and
unspoken rules are heavily embedded in the culture from which they originate.
For example, in
Asian cultures, they usually never flat out say no, they beat around the bush and say phrases which
mean no, but to an American it could sound like there is hope for a deal.
Body language can tell
mean a lot in different cultures
Cross-Cultural Communication Barriers-
Language barriers (thousands of languages and over 10,000 dialects), Stylistic barriers, and
nonverbal communication barriers
Any message processed independent of the written or spoken word.
The transfer of meaning
through means such as body language and the use of physical space.
Includes gestures, facial
expressions, posture and stance, touching, eye contact etc.
Communication Context: Low versus High Context Communication-
Communication context is the extent to which a message must be inferred from contextual
or situational aspects.
With low-context communication, the information to be expressed is contained in