Psychology Final Exam Vocabulary

Psychology Final Exam Vocabulary - Psychology Final Exam...

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Psychology Final Exam Vocabulary Chapter 1 – Introduction 1. Hindsight bias – the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I knew it all along phenomenon) 2. Critical thinking – thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. 3. Theory – an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predictions behaviors or events. 4. Hypothesis – a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. 5. Operational definition – a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. 6. Replication – Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. 7. Case study – an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
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8. Survey – a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group. 9. Population – all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country’s whole population.) 10. Random sample – a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. 11. Naturalistic observation – observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. 12. Correlation- a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. 13. Correlation coefficient – a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from-1 to +1). 14. Scatterplots – a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). 15. Illusory correlation – the perception of a relationship where none exists. 16. Experiment – a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental
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process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. 17. Random assignment – assigning participants to experimental and control groups
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Sabin during the Fall '09 term at Saint Louis.

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Psychology Final Exam Vocabulary - Psychology Final Exam...

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