risk factors notes

risk factors notes - Causes and Risk Factors...

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Causes and Risk Factors: Diathesis-Stress Models -Diathesis -predisposition to disease -Stress -environmental component to a disease -diseases arise from a combination of both History of Abnormal Psychology -Ancient theories -Stone Age -Ancient cultures believed in spirits who controlled much of the environment, including aspects of a person’s behavior -Trephination (cutting a hole in the skull) -Other treatments included torture and sacrifices -Classical Greek and Roman Times (430-377 BC) -Hippocrates (460-377 BC) -Father of modern Western medicine -Etiology = physical disease -Precursor to somatoform disorders -Hysteria (Wandering uterus) -Humoral theory of mental illness -Sanguine: blood, cheerful and optimistic, insomnia and delirium caused by too much blood in the brain -Melancholic: black bile, depressive -Phlegmatic: phlegm, apathy and sluggishness -Choleric: yellow bile, hot tempered -Galen -Physiology -Hysteria (fluid imbalance) -Middle Ages (500-1400s) -demonological explanations and treatments -etiology of abnormal behavior = work of the devil, witchcraft, sorcery -the Malleus Maleficarum (1486-1669) Latin for “The Hammer of Witches” Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger -Demonic views held over form the Middle Ages -America’s witch hunt (1692) Salem Witch Trials in US -Mass Hysteria -Renaissance (1400-1700) -Rise of the asylums -institutions with the primary purpose of housing and treating large quantities of the mentally ill -19 th Century and the beginning of modern thought -moral treatment -Phillip Pinel -psychological and social origin to mental illness -curable -early talk therapy -William Turk -York retreat -a retreat away from daily life to refresh participants -Benjamin Rush -Father of American Psychiatry
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-1 st psychiatry textbook -Dorothea Dix -instrumental in the founding of the first public mental hospital in Pennsylvania, the Harrisburg State Hospital -lobbied for more humane treatment of patients in hospital settings -1850 to 1900: Biological and Psychological Perspectives -Al Capone had psychosis caused by syphilis, brought forth the idea that mental illness can arise from disease -Emil Kraepelin -integrated scientific method with study of mental illness -early diagnostic categories -Franz Anton Mesmer -animal magnetism, believed that there was a magnetic field around people -charlatan, but he actually cured people through the placebo effect -showed that psychopathology is not purely physical -Jean-Martin Charcot -hypnosis, taught others to hypnotize themselves -Josef Breuer -used hypnosis as first-line treatment of emotional problems -first manualized talk therapy -psychoanalysis -founder Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) -three regions of the mind [Id (instant gratification), Ego (regulate Id’s needs), Superego (conscience, moral center)] -defense mechanisms -psychosexual stages of development -treatment options Twentieth Century: Psychology’s Influence -Cognitive -Albert Ellis-developed R.E.B.T.-sees all behavior as consisting of ABCs: Activating event, Beliefs,Consequences [emotional, behavioral, or physical]
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risk factors notes - Causes and Risk Factors...

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