Final_study_guide_BIO - Intro to Bio Final exam study guide...

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Intro to Bio Final exam study guide Genetics 1. Asexual vs. sexual reproduction a. Asexual: only one parent is involved, produces clones (same), vegetative, budding, increase exponentially b. Sexual: two parents involved 2. Chromosomal accounting – somatic cell vs gamete – diploid/haploid a. Somatic cell: body cells, to regenerate these cells undergo Mitosis, 46 chromosome b. Gamete cell: sex cells, (eggs and sperm cells) 23 chromosomes, paired up then 46 made my meiosis, 22 autosomes plus sex chromosome (X or Y) c. Diploid: somatic cells conataining two sets of chromosomes (humans) 2n (zygote) d. Haploid: gamete cells containing one set of chromosomes 3. Cell cycle: What is the cell doing during interphase and what is it doing during the mitotic phase? a. Interphase: preparing for cell division, cell growth and chromosome duplication b. Mitotic phase: cell division 4. DNA packing – what role do histones have? Package and order the dna into structural unites called nucleosomes. 5. Are chromosomes usually laid out neatly as depicted in the karyotypes? no 6. Mitosis – general – what is it – what processes need to happen prior to it and then after it? When a parent cell undergoes a mitotic cell division, did it first duplicate its chromosomes, how many daughter cells are formed, and are these daughter cells genetically identical to the parent cell. a. Mitosis: Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei b. Mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase Prophase: chromosomes coil up Metaphase: chromosomes move to middle of cell anaphase: sister chromatid are moved to opposite poles of the cell telophase: two new nuclei are formed Two identical daughter cells are formed that are genetically identical. 7. Cytokinesis: plant vs animal – If given a figure, be able to identify whether cytokinesis is happening in a plant or in an animal cell a. Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm, in animals occurs by cleavage, which pinches the cell in two, in plants a membranous cell plate splits the cell in two. Animal:boobs plant: rectangle 8. Malfunctioning cell cycle control system – neoplasms – what’s one difference between a benign mass and a malignant mass? a. Benign tumor: if abnormal cells remain at the original site, can cause problems if they grow larger but often can be completely removed by surgery b. Malignant tumor: can spread into neighboring tissues and others parts of body displacing normal tissue and interruption organ function 9. Arrested cell cycle – G 0 - - name 2 cell types that are typically stuck in G 0 a. Nerve and heart muscle cells 10. New scientific understanding of cell cycle of neurons – neurogenesis in adults a. New neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in predominantly two regions of the brain: b. Subventricular zone and subgranular zone 11. Culturing cells – example HeLa line – are these mortal or immortal? Normal or cancerous cells?
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2011 for the course BIO 155 taught by Professor Skoubis during the Fall '10 term at DePaul.

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Final_study_guide_BIO - Intro to Bio Final exam study guide...

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