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Study guide Ch 21 22 23

Study guide Ch 21 22 23 - BIO155 Midterm2...

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BIO 155 Midterm 2  Study guide - Part 2 of 2 Animal structure and function Chap 21  1. Define Anatomy  the study of the structure of an organism and its  parts 2. Define Physiology  the study of the function of an organism’s  structural equipment 3. What are the various levels of organization of the human body?  Cells,  tissues, organs, organ systems 4. What the 4 main types of tissues?  Name them and give their function,  know the subtypes if we discussed them (i.e., cardiac, skeletal and  smooth muscle) Epithelial:sheet of tightly packed cells lining organs and  cavities, glands that secrete sweat, rapid cell division  examples: outer layer of skin, linings of heart, blood vessels,  digestive tract, resp tract. Connective:tissues consisting of cells held in an abundant  extracellular matrix. To bind and support other tissues, elastic  fibersss blood is connective tissue, cartilage in your ear,  boness Muscle:tissue consisting of long muscle cells that are capable  of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses Skeletal: attached to bones by tendons responsible for  our voluntary movements (walking and talking) striated Cardiac: striated, only found in heart tissue, involuntary  muscle Smooth: found in walls of such organs as the intestinal  muscles, involuntary Nervous: tissue made up neurons and supportive cells
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5. Organ system overview – just know the main function of each.   6. How do single-celled organisms make exchanges with the environment?  The entire surface area of a single celled organism such as this  amoeba, contacts the environment. Because of its small size, the  organism has a large surface area through which it exchanges  materials with the external world.  7. What substance is required in order for cells to be able to exchange  nutrients and gases with the environment?  (Hint: nutrients and gases  must be dissolved in this substance. It’s related to why small animals can  breathe through their skin, but it must be moist.)  access to a suitable  watery environment 8. Relative to other animals, do humans have a simple or a complex body  form? complex 9.
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