Shifting Standards Professor Hackathorn APA Example

Shifting Standards Professor Hackathorn APA Example -...

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Shifting Standards 1 Running head: SHIFTING STANDARDS IN INFIDELITY What’s Good for the Goose: Shifting Standards in Perceptions of Infidelity? Jana Hackathorn and Richard D. Harvey Saint Louis University
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Shifting Standards 2 Abstract The shifting standards model suggests that one’s judgment regarding a member of a social category is based on some stereotype-relevant dimension (Biernat, 1995). This means that the target is judged in accordance to the stereotypes or standards that affect their specific social group. The current study examines shifting standards in relation to sexuality and promiscuity. Specifically, judges were asked about their perceptions of computer-mediated extra-dyadic behavior. Due to sexual stereotypes that females should be and are more sexually conservative (Pines & Friedman, 1998), it was predicted that participants would perceive the behavior as more negative when the target is female. While results indicate that there was a shift in standards, the shift was not in the predicted direction. Further analyses indicate a significant same-sex bias in participants’ responses.
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Shifting Standards 3 What’s Good for the Goose: Shifting Standards in Perceptions of Infidelity? Computer-mediated sexual behavior, or cyber-sex, is a new and increasingly popular, trend in which people use interactive, computer-mediated content for sexual simulation (Maheu & Subotnik, 2001). While the numbers do vary, studies suggest that online topics concerning human sexuality is the most commonly searched topics on the Internet (Dew, Brubaker, & Hays, 2006), 30% or more of the on-line population visit sexual web sites (Drudis, 1999) and at least 12 million people use the web for sexual pleasures that range from viewing sexy pictures to masturbating while chatting (Collins, 1999). However, because the behavior lacks physical contact, it may be difficult to determine if sex has actually occurred (Collins, 1999). This discrepancy becomes specifically important when the computer-mediated sexual behavior is extra-dyadic in nature. While, some suggest that cybersex is not ‘real sex’ due to the absence of a physical body in cyberspace, others feel that as it pertains to infidelity, perception is reality. It can be argued that cyber-sex is actually mental because one can separate disclosing intimate details with another individual online and engaging in sexual activities with a tangible individual (Argyle, & Shields, 1996). In a more recent study, just over 60% of participants did not believe that cyber-sex violates an individual’s vows (Cooper, Morahan-Martin, Mathy, & Maheu, 2002). Arguably, this is because cyber-sex does not necessarily involve physical contact from the other person, nor does it involve contact that is any more intimate than the act of viewing adult or pornographic magazines. Conversely, although there is no physical body present online, the extra-dyadic sexual act
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Sabin during the Spring '09 term at Saint Louis.

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Shifting Standards Professor Hackathorn APA Example -...

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