Ch12 - 1: 2 CHAPTER PREVIEW Motivation and Work Motivation...

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CHAPTER PREVIEW Motivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. The early view that instincts control behavior has been replaced by evolutionary theory, which searches for the adaptive func- tions of behavior. Drive-reduction theory maintains that physiological needs create psychological drives that seek to restore internal stability, or homeostasis. In addition, some motivated behaviors increase arousal, and we are pulled by external incentives. According to Maslow, some motives are more compelling than others. Hunger seems to originate from changes in glucose and insulin levels that are monitored by the hypothalamus, as well as changes in the levels of leptin, orexin, and PYY. To control weight, the body also adjusts its basal metabolic rate. Body chemistry and environmental factors together influence our taste preferences. Psychological influences on eating behavior are most evident in those who are motivated to be abnormally thin. Like hunger, sexual motivation depends on the interplay of internal and external stimuli. In nonhuman animals, hormones help stimulate sexual activity. In humans, they influence sexual behavior more loosely. One’s sexual orientation seems neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed; new research links sexual orientation to biological factors. The need to belong is a major influence in motivating human behavior. Social bonds boosted our ancestors’ survival rates. We experience our need to belong when feeling the gloom of loneli- ness or joy of love, and when seeking social acceptance. Work meets several human needs. The growing field of industrial-organizational psychology attempts to match people to work, enhance employee satisfaction and productivity, and explore strategies for effective workplace management. People who excel are often self-disciplined individuals with strong achievement motivation. Effective leaders build on people’s strengths, work with them to set specific and challenging goals, and adapt their leadership style to the situation. CHAPTER GUIDE Introductory Exercise: Fact or Falsehood? Lecture: Why Do Students Go to College? Exercise: The Hope Scale Feature Film: A Man for All Seasons Videos: Module 18 of Psychology: The Human Experience: What Is Motivation? ; Discovering Psychology, Updated Edition: Motivation and Emotion 79 Motivation and Work 12 :
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Perspectives on Motivation Lectures: Evolutionary Psychology; Maslow’s Hierarchy Exercises: Exploration Index; Sensation-Seeking Scale; A Short Measure of Self-Actualization Project: An Assessment of Your Present Needs Transparency: 124 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1. Define motivation as psychologists use the term today, and name four perspectives for studying motivated behavior. A
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 413 taught by Professor Moorhouse during the Winter '10 term at Grand Valley State University.

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Ch12 - 1: 2 CHAPTER PREVIEW Motivation and Work Motivation...

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