Ch15 - 1: 5 CHAPTER PREVIEW Personality Personality is...

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CHAPTER PREVIEW Personality is one’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Sigmund Freud, in his psychoanalytic perspective, proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motives influenced personality. For Sigmund Freud, conflict between pleasure-seek- ing biological impulses and social restraints centered on three interacting systems: id, ego, and superego. Freud believed that children develop through psychosexual stages and that people’s later problems are rooted in how they resolve conflicts associated with these stages. The neo-Freudians agreed with Freud’s basic ideas but placed more emphasis on the conscious mind and on social influences. Today, psychodynamic theorists agree with many of Freud’s views but not his idea that sex is the basis of personality. Contemporary research confirms that, more than most of us realize, our lives are guided by nonconscious information processing. The humanistic perspective emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people. Abraham Maslow believed that if basic human needs are met, people will strive to actualize their highest potential. Carl Rogers suggested that being genuine, accepting, and empathic helps others to develop a positive self-concept. The trait perspective attempts to describe the predispositions that underlie our actions. Through factor analysis, researchers have isolated five distinct dimensions of personality. People’s specific behaviors vary across situations as their inner dispositions interact with particular environments. The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes how personal-cognitive factors combine with the environment to influence behavior. More than other perspectives, it builds from research on learn- ing and cognition. Researchers assess how people’s behaviors and beliefs both affect and are affected by their situations. Currently, the self is one of Western psychology’s more vigorously researched topics. Studies confirm the benefits of positive self-esteem but also point to the possible hazards of pride. Compared to defensive self-esteem, secure self-esteem depends less on external evaluations and enables us to lose ourselves in relationships and purposes larger than self. CHAPTER GUIDE Introductory Exercise: Fact or Falsehood? Lecture: Issues in Personality Theory Exercises: Introducing Personality; Your Theory of Personality Feature Film: Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Video: Module 26 of Psychology: The Human Experience: Origins of Personality 97 Personality 15 :
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1. Define personality. Psychologists consider personality to be an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. The Psychoanalytic Perspective Exercise: Fifteen Freudian Principle Statements; Defense Mechanism Miniskits; Defense Mechanisms; The False Consensus Effect Lectures: Freudian Slips; The Case of Little Hans Video: Discovering Psychology, Updated Edition: The Mind Hidden and Divided Transparencies: 149 Freud’s Idea of the Mind’s Structure; 150 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 413 taught by Professor Moorhouse during the Winter '10 term at Grand Valley State University.

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Ch15 - 1: 5 CHAPTER PREVIEW Personality Personality is...

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