Ch17 - 1: 7 CHAPTER PREVIEW Therapy Mental health therapies...

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CHAPTER PREVIEW Mental health therapies include psychological therapies and biomedical therapies. Therapists using an eclectic approach draw from a variety of techniques. In fact, half of all psychotherapists describe themselves as taking an eclectic approach. Psychotherapy integration attempts to combine a selection of assorted techniques into a single, coherent system. Psychoanalysts use free association and the interpretation of dreams, resistances, and transfer- ence to help their patients gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorders and to work through the accompanying feelings. Humanistic therapy focuses on clients’ conscious feelings and on their taking responsibility for their own growth. Client-centered therapists use active listening to express genuineness, accept- ance, and empathy. Behavior therapists emphasize the direct modification of problem behaviors. They use expo- sure therapies such as systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning, and they may also apply operant conditioning principles with techniques such as token economies. Cognitive therapies aim to change self-defeating thinking by training people to view them- selves in new, more positive ways. Cognitive-behavior therapists aim to change the way people act as well as alter the way they think. Except for traditional psychoanalysis, these various types of therapies may also occur in therapist-led small groups. One special type of group therapy, family therapy, assumes that no person is an island. Research on the effectiveness of therapy indicates that people who receive therapy are more likely to improve than the untreated. However, the friendly counsel of paraprofessionals also tends to produce more improvement than occurs with untreated people. Administration of antipsychotic, antianxiety, and antidepressant drugs, and mood-stabilizing medications constitutes the most widely used biomedical therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy, although controversial, continues to be an effective treatment for many severely depressed people who do not respond to drug therapy. Gentler alternatives to ECT are now being used. Psychosurgery is rarely used to alleviate specific problems largely because the effects are irre- versible and potentially drastic. Preventive mental health experts aim to change oppressive, esteem-destroying environments into more benevolent, nurturing environments that foster individual growth and self-confidence. The biopsychosocial approach recognizes that effective treatment of psychological disorders must consider biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors. 111 Therapy 17 :
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CHAPTER GUIDE Introductory Exercise: Fact or Falsehood? Lecture: The Availability and Adequacy of Treatment Exercises: Therapist Role-Playing; Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Videos: Module 40 of Psychology: The Human Experience: Problems in Living; Discovering Psychology, Updated Edition: Psychotherapy; Video Clips 35 and 36 of
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Ch17 - 1: 7 CHAPTER PREVIEW Therapy Mental health therapies...

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