Chapter 21

Chapter 21 - Chapter 21: The Furnace of the Civil War (1861...

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Chapter 21: “The Furnace of the Civil War” (1861 – 1865) 1. Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War” a. Abraham Lincoln i. Called for 75,000 militiamen on April 15, 1861 ii. Quick suppression of the South to prove the North’s superiority b. July 21, 1861 i. Yankee recruits swaggered out toward Bull Run ii. The atmosphere was like that of a sporting event 1. Initial success by the Union 2. Confederate reinforcements arrived 3. Stonewall Jackson’s line holding 4. Union soldiers into disarray c. The Battle of Bull Run i. Showed both sides that this would not be a short, easy war 2. “Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign a. Army of the Potomac i. General George B. McClellan 1. Organizer of troops 2. Believed that he was outnumbered 3. Held the army without moving for months before finally ordered by Lincoln to advance b. The Union strategy i. Turned to total war: 1. Suffocate the South through an oceanic blockade 2. Free the slaves to undermine the South’s very economic foundations 3. Cut the Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi River 4. Capture its capital, Richmond, Virginia 3. The War at Sea a. Union blockade b. Britain i. Recognized the blockade as binding 1. Britain herself often used blockades in her wars c. Blockade-running i. Process of smuggling materials through the blockade ii. Risky but profitable business iii. Union navy also seized British freighters on the high seas d. Virginia (formerly called the Merrimack) i. Threatened to break the Union blockade ii. Monitor arrived just in time to fight the Merrimack to a standstill iii. Confederate ship was destroyed later by the South to save it from the North 4. The Pivotal Point: Antietam a. Second Battle of Bull Run
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2011 for the course HIST 1377 taught by Professor Nazzal during the Spring '10 term at HCCS.

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Chapter 21 - Chapter 21: The Furnace of the Civil War (1861...

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