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experiment 6


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1 ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS EXPERIMENT 6 INTRODUCTION Organic compounds make up a large fraction of all known molecules. As virtually every compound that contains a carbon atom is said organic , one needs to divide organic molecules in various groups in order to rationally discuss them. These groups are called classes . Molecules within one class have similar properties and undergo similar reactions. The division into classes is based upon the functional group(s) present in a molecule. Qualitative analysis is a type of chemical analysis that deals with the identification of the constituents in an unknown substance or a mixture of unknown substances. It is used routinely in many different industries like: medicine, environmental regulations, forensic investigations. .. Qualitative analysis frequently rely on a specific property, unique to the species to be identified. The functional groups of organic compounds are the parts of the molecules responsible for most of their properties. In Part One of this experiment you will develop a classification scheme from a series of tests described in the procedure section. We will consider 6 different classes of organic compounds: alkenes, alcohols, aldehydes, amines, carboxylic acids , and ketones . Your textbook, p.86-100 and p.1149-1154 (+ lecture notes) provide all you need to know for this experiment, about the nomenclature of chemical compounds. In Part Two of this experiment you will synthesize an ester (another functional group) using the carboxylic acid and the alcohol identified in Part One. One property of esters , their fragrant odors, will be noted. Class Functional group Alcohol Aldehyde Alkene Amine Carboxylic acid Ketone CO H C O H CC CN H 2 C O OH O C
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2 APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS Chemicals Apparatus One set of 6 unknowns test tube rack Ceric ammonium nitrate reagent litmus paper, red and blue 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine hot plate Chromic-sulfuric acid reagent pasteur pipets 0.2% KMnO 4 stoppers Acetone Kim wipes tissues Ethanol 5 small test tubes Concentrated sulfuric acid grease pencil Aspirin small dropper bulb PROCEDURE Part one – standard tests Your demonstrator will give you one of the following unknown sets, without telling you which one it is. Unknown Set #1 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) nonanal 1-decene 1,2-Bis(dimethylamino)ethane ethanoic acid (acetic acid) 2-propanone (dimethyl ketone or acetone) Unknown Set #2 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutyl alcohol) benzaldehyde 1-decene 1,2-Bis(dimethylamino)ethane propanoic acid (propionic acid) 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone) As you can see, each set contains: an alkene , an alcohol , an aldehyde , an amine , a carboxylic acid and a ketone . You are to correctly identify which bottle contains what, based upon the tests listed on the next 3 pages. You are not required to perform every test on every bottle, nor need the tests be performed in the listed order. Prepare in advance your own strategy and discuss it with your partner to decide upon the most efficient way to accomplish your task. You must
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