Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 - Physical and Cognitive Development...

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Chapter 7 - Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Physical Development Body Growth Skeletal Growth o Ages 2-6: 45 new epiphyses, growth centers in which cartilage hardens into bones, emerge in various parts of the skeleton o At the end of pre-school years: lose primary, “baby” teeth Asynchronies in Physical Growth o Asynchronous: body systems differ in their patterns of growth o General Growth Curve: Rapid growth during infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood, and rapid growth again during adolescence. o Genital development: develop slowly from birth to age 4, change little throughout middle childhood, then grow rapidly during adolescence. o Lymph Glands: grow at astounding pace in infancy and childhood and decline in adolescence. Brain Development o Ages 2-6: Brain increases from 70% of its adult weight to 90% o Age 4: by this time many parts of the cerebral cortex have overproduced synapses; preschoolers improve on wide variety of skills (ch. 4) Handedness o Reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain – often referred to as the individual’s dominant cerebral hemisphere – to carry out motor action. Other Advances in Brain Development o Cerebellum: at the rear and base of the brain; a structure that aids in balance and control of body movement o Reticular Formation: structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness, myelinates throughout childhood and into adolescence o Corpus Callosum: a large bundle of fibers connecting the two cortical hemispheres.; supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body and integration of many aspects of thinking, including perception, attention, memory, language, and problem solving. Influences on Physical Growth and Health Heredity and Hormones o Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain; plays critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth o Growth Hormone: from birth on is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals o Thyroid-Stimulating Hormones: prompts the thyroid gland (in the neck) to release thyroxin, which is necessary for brain development and for gh to have its full impact on body size Emotional Well-Being o Extreme emotional deprivation can interfere with the production of GH and lead to Psychosocial dwarfism: growth disorder that appears between ages 2-15. Characteristics: very short stature, decreased gh secretion, immature skeletal age, and serious adjustment problems, which help distinguish psychosocial dwarfism from normal shortness
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Nutrition Infectious Diseases o Poorly fed/malnourished children that diseases can have severe consequences because the disease interacts with malnutrition in a vicious spiral. o
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course PSY 231 taught by Professor Limegrover during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 - Physical and Cognitive Development...

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