Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 7 - Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Physical Development Body Growth Skeletal Growth o Ages 2-6: 45 new epiphyses, growth centers in which cartilage hardens into bones, emerge in various parts of the skeleton o At the end of pre-school years: lose primary, “baby” teeth Asynchronies in Physical Growth o Asynchronous: body systems differ in their patterns of growth o General Growth Curve: Rapid growth during infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood, and rapid growth again during adolescence. o Genital development: develop slowly from birth to age 4, change little throughout middle childhood, then grow rapidly during adolescence. o Lymph Glands: grow at astounding pace in infancy and childhood and decline in adolescence. Brain Development o Ages 2-6: Brain increases from 70% of its adult weight to 90% o Age 4: by this time many parts of the cerebral cortex have overproduced synapses; preschoolers improve on wide variety of skills (ch. 4) Handedness o Reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain – often referred to as the individual’s dominant cerebral hemisphere – to carry out motor action. Other Advances in Brain Development o Cerebellum: at the rear and base of the brain; a structure that aids in balance and control of body movement o Reticular Formation: structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness, myelinates throughout childhood and into adolescence o Corpus Callosum: a large bundle of fibers connecting the two cortical hemispheres.; supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body and integration of many aspects of thinking, including perception, attention, memory, language, and problem solving. Influences on Physical Growth and Health Heredity and Hormones o Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain; plays critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth o Growth Hormone: from birth on is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals o Thyroid-Stimulating Hormones: prompts the thyroid gland (in the neck) to release thyroxin, which is necessary for brain development and for gh to have its full impact on body size Emotional Well-Being o Extreme emotional deprivation can interfere with the production of GH and lead to Psychosocial dwarfism: growth disorder that appears between ages 2-15. Characteristics: very short stature, decreased gh secretion, immature skeletal age, and serious adjustment problems, which help distinguish psychosocial dwarfism from normal shortness
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Nutrition Infectious Diseases o Poorly fed/malnourished children that diseases can have severe consequences because the disease interacts with malnutrition in a vicious spiral.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern