chapter 10 - Rhein 1 PSY 231 Book Notes Chapter 10...

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Rhein 1 PSY 231 March 29, 2010 Book Notes Chapter 10: Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood Erikson’s Theory: Industry vs. Inferiority A. Children redirect their energies from the make-believe to realistic accomplishment because of the combination of adult expectations and children’s drive toward mastery B. Industry vs. inferiority –the psychological conflict of middle childhood which is resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks 1. Inferiority –reflected in the pessimism of children who have little confidence in their ability to do things well a. Can develop when family life has not prepared children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy children’s feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses 2. Industry combines several developments of middle childhood: a. Positive but realistic self-concept b. Pride in accomplishment c. Moral responsibility d. Cooperative participation with agemates Self-Understanding 1. This age group starts to describe themselves in terms of psychological traits, to compare their own characteristics with those of their peers, and to speculate about the causes of their strengths and weaknesses A. Self-concept –“Me-self” –refinement of organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions, with a major change taking place between ages 8 and 11 1. Child emphasizes competencies, personality, positive and negative traits a. Older children are less likely than younger children to describe themselves in extreme, all-or-none ways 2. Social comparisons –judgements of their appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to hose of others a. Whereas 4 to 6-year-olds can compare their own performance to that of one peer, older children can compare multiple individuals, including themselves 3. The changing content of self-concept is a product of both cognitive capacities and feedback from others a. Mead (1934) –perspective-taking skills -well organized psychological self emerges when the child’s I-self adopts a view of the me-self that resembles others’ attitudes toward the child b. School-aged children become better at reading others’ messages and incorporating these into their self-definitions
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Rhein 2 - Internalize others’ expectations and form an ideal self that they use to evaluate their real self Discrepancies can undermine self-esteem leading to sadness, hopelessness, and depression c. Self descriptions now include frequent reference to social groups and self-concept is increasingly vested in feedback from close friends 4. Self-concept varies from culture to culture –individualist vs. collectivist cultures B. Development of Self-Esteem 1. A Hierarchically Structured Self-Esteem - The capacity to view the self in terms of stable dispositions permits school-age children to combine their separate self-evaluations into a general psychological image of themselves –an overall sense of self-esteem
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chapter 10 - Rhein 1 PSY 231 Book Notes Chapter 10...

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