ISB 202 Exam 2 Review Questions

ISB 202 Exam 2 Review Questions - ISB 202 Exam 2 Review...

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ISB 202 Exam 2 Review Questions – Fall 2008 1. Which macromolecules are the largest and most complex in living organisms ? proteins 2. What are some roles of proteins in organisms? 1. Enzymes ( > 1000 in humans) – are proteins that make reactions go faster. 2. Hormones – chemical messengers; regulate rxns. 3. Transport – they help move molecules 4. Structural – mechanical support. Part of: -- hair -- cartilage -- bone -- feathers 5. Contractile – allow muscles to contract 6. Protective – antibodies are proteins which fight diseases (immuno- globulins) 7. Storage – stored food in seed embryos and eggs 8. Toxins – some kill bacteria 9. Communication – cell signaling (receptors on cell surface) 3. What are the two kinds of “transport” with which proteins help molecules get across cellular membranes? Transport-they help move molecules – through membranes and in blood Passive transport-does not use energy o Passive transport involves proteins allowing for solutes to pass through the membrane via channels that use no energy o Active transport changes the shape of the proteins as a solutes is passed through 4. Are all hormones proteins? Are all enzymes proteins? Enzymes (1000s in humans) are proteins that make reactions (rxns) go faster. Hormones- chemical messengers- turn rxns. on or off- not all hormones are proteins but most are 5. Which of the following has about 50% protein? Eggs, meat, cassava, milk or legume seeds? o 1. Meat has ~43% protein o 2. Milk has ~27% protein o 3. Eggs have ~50% protein o 4. Plants- (mostly in seeds)- about 1%-15% 6. What makes bread rise? (Multiple answers) o Gluten is the protein that allows bread dough to rise- allows materials to stretch
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o Yeast is eating the starch and producing carbon dioxide when bread rises 7. What is gluten? Endosperm-mostly starch but not all- some protein called gluten protein mixed in with endosperm seeds 8. What is the number one food crop in the world? Number two? Number 1 food crop for people is rice Number 2 food crop for people is wheat 9. Plants generally provide fairly large amounts of protein. True or False ? Most plants are very LOW in protein 10. What commercial product is made from the outside layers of wheat seeds? Bran- the outer part of the seed 11. Which part of seeds has the highest percent protein? Embryo (baby plant) 12. What is the name of the protein malnutrition “disease” in humans? o A malnutrition disease called kwashiorkor – not having enough protein in diets 13. What determines what a protein can actually do? Shape 14. How many different amino acids are there? Eight (in adults, 9 in children) are “essential amino acids” body can’t produce them There are 12 remaining Complete protein has all of the essential amino acids Incomplete protein is one that lacks all of the essential amino acids 15. What are the four parts of an amino acid? Which part is most important in determining protein function? Amino acid-building blocks of proteins, made up of four parts.
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ISB 202 Exam 2 Review Questions - ISB 202 Exam 2 Review...

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