IAH 202 - IAH 202 The Columbian Exchange and the Birth of a...

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IAH 202 The Columbian Exchange and the Birth of a Global Economy The Columbian Exchange o This used to be referred to as “The Spanish Conquest” o However, over the past twenty years historians have realized that rather than being the imposition of European Values and goods on the Americas, it was actually a two- way exchange, with goods, practices and ideas flowing in both directions Why did the Spanish fund Columbus? o Defeat of the Moors o The Reconquista o 1492 saw the recapture of Granada, the last Muslim held territory in the Iberian Peninsular from the Moors o Spain thus had to look abroad for further territorial expansion The Reconquista o 711-714- Moors first invade Iberian peninsular o 718-1492- The Reconquista o Elements of the Crusades involved, including the Reconquista of Portugal by 1249 o Reconquista of Spain completed January 2, 1492 when the Moors surrendered their last kingdom in Spain, the city of Granada… o It was after the fall of Granada in 1492 that Queen Isabella agreed to fund Columbus The treaty of Tordesillas o 1492 o Between the Spanish and the withdrawing Moors o One clause agreed was that the Spanish promised not to take slaves from Arabic North Africa-thus slaves were thereafter only drawn from sub-Saharan black Africa o Result: the growth of racial slavery Christopher Columbus o 1451-1506
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o Born in Genoa, Italy o First major voyages in the mid-1470s o 1484: Approaches the kind of Portugal with a plan for an expedition to seek lands to the west via a sea route Four Voyages o First Voyage: ‘Discovery’ of the New World (Bahamas, Cuba, and Hispania)… What was Columbus’ motivation? o Was it gold, or religion? o No priests were taken on the first voyage o One scholar has claimed that Columbus was not motivated by money at all, but by religious zeal, the urge to convert pagan peoples to Christianity and the desire to retake the Holy Lands for the Catholic Church o China was rich in gold, so Columbus wanted that gold to go to Spain so the Crusades (1097-1291) could be revived. The end of Columbus o He died in Spain in 1506 o Some say he died penniless, others that he died rich, either way, he was not lauded at the time for his discovery of the Americas o He was still convinced to the end that he had found Asia, though scholars today say… Martin Waldseemuller’s map of 1507 was the first to incorporate the ‘new world’ discoveries of Columbus Hondius’ map of 1630- a more familiar world Viking ‘discovery’ of America o Vikings send a colonization party to Greenland in c. 986 AD o In c. 1000AD they set out for Iceland, but were blown off course by a storm o Apparently landed first on Baffin Island, then possibly on Larador… o In 1963, archeologists discovered the ruins of a Viking outpost at L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland
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o The Northern climate was harsh. The L’Anse aux Meadows settlement lasted only two years o No permanent settlements in North America resulted
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IAH 202 - IAH 202 The Columbian Exchange and the Birth of a...

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