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< previous page page_9 next page > Page 9 When or why is the machine view useful in practice? When the task to be performed is straightforward. For repetitive production of a single product. When the "human parts" fit into the design and are prepared to follow machine- like commands. In a stable environment. Examples are the armed forces and large franchises such as
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fast food chains. When or why does the machine view break down in practice? It reduces the adaptability of the organisation (i.e. a machine-like organisation is vulnerable in a volatile environment). It requires a mindless contribution that is difficult to maintain with mindful parts (i.e. it will either dehumanise or will lead to conflicting aims between machine and minds). 1.6 Organic Metaphor or "Open System" View The machine view was, as we have seen, strongly challenged by the emergence of systems thinking. Complex phenomena began to be considered as "systems". Because modern
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systems thinking was born in the biological sciences, this
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page_9 - &lt;previouspage page_9 nextpage&gt; Page 9 When...

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