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< previous page page_38 next page > Page 38 determine the purpose to be pursued and the relevant system for achieving this purpose (the "system in focus", that portion of the model where the main issues and actors are assumed to reside); specify sub-systems and wider systems; detail the environment, operations and management of each sub-system; study the co-ordination of the "system in focus"; study the control of the "system in focus";
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function of the "system in focus"; study the policy-making function of the "system in focus"; check that all information channels, transducers and control loops are properly designed. Two important metaphors underpinning these "cybernetic" (because they concentrate on communication and control) systems approaches are those of the organisation as an "organism" (organic) and as a "brain" (neurocybernetic metaphor). Implicit also is the idea of a ''team". These metaphors therefore characterise or constitute the complex-unitary area of the system of systems methodologies. Simple-
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