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page_58 next page > Page 58 of pluralism and culture remained dominant, but now the issues were much more clear cut. We needed to consider the two interdependent "solutions" and, in particular, to challenge seriously the accepted top- down way of doing TQM. One policy option that diverged considerably from the traditional top-down view had emerged. If we could dialectically resolve these issues by testing strategic assumptions, then we might be ready to change dominant metaphor and methodology again by moving from a "what" methodology (pluralist) to a "how" methodology (unitary). This is consistent with the philosophy of SAST, that once we have dealt with pluralism then we can relatively easily deal with the remaining technical matters through appropriate methods. At the same time and to enhance the SAST process, systems metaphors were drawn upon to critique TQM (along the lines of the case study in Chapter 1, Section 1.11.3). This effort highlighted the
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course MGT 03 taught by Professor Kasra during the Spring '11 term at Tanta University.

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