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< previous page page_67 next page > Page 67 real value in detailing the main validatory concerns. These are empirical, theoretical and pragmatic validity. Empirical validation proceeds by way of adaptive fitting, comparing model response to available data over a range of dynamic tests, involving structural changes and other model perturbations. This should involve quantitative and qualitative feature testing and sensitivity analysis, normally by simulation. Theoretical validation involves the comparison of any theories that are assumed in the model with those available in the scientific literature. The model does not necessarily have to conform to generally accepted theories, but comparison can prove to be insightful and thus valuable. Pragmatic validity amounts to continuous assessment about the value of any proposed design in terms of the people and the purposes to be met. When some satisfactory correspondence has been attained between that which is
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being modelled, the model, and the modelling purposes,
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