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< previous page page_79 next page > Page 79 encountered in complex- pluralist situations. The reader will need to disentangle which of the following criticisms come from which viewpointa not too difficult task for which guidance will, in any case, be given. Theor y SD has been criticised theoretically for abandoning the scientific method (point (a)), but most of the criticisms of the theory underlying the approach stem from the soft systems position (points (b) to (d)). (a) SD diverges from the normal scientific method and is criticised by advocates of other hard systems approaches for having done so. The scientific method (as usually described) proceeds by reduction to observe and measure relevant phenomena
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and the relationships between them, then to formulate laws and rules, and finally by aggregation of the laws to explain overall systems behaviour. SD attempts, through its general theory of systems behaviour, to grasp the whole, even when this is difficult to model. Putting in
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course MGT 03 taught by Professor Kasra during the Spring '11 term at Tanta University.

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