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page_111 next page > Page 111 is one-sided in this respect, emphasising the pursuit of known goals rather that the way goals are arrived at. Descriptions of the VSM make no explicit mention of negotiation forums or participation to take account of individual viewpoints. But neither does the model reject participation. There is no reason why the VSM cannot be activated in a broader democratic context with channels for participation introduced according to management style. In the Fleet reorganisation, for example, all staffing levels were consulted and participated, and the management style adopted led to encouragement of a purposeful human contribution, making working- life meaningful for employees in their own terms while ensuring Fleet services were maintained. In this case the viable system model co- existed with intrinsic motivation. Of course, the criticism that the VSM says little about how participation in goal setting can be achieved remains. (c) It is sometimes said that the
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