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< previous page page_146 next page > Page 146 need to alter the way they think about these enterprises. In the past, it has been usual to regard corporations either as "machines" serving the purposes of their creators or owners, or as "organisms" serving their own purposes. Today a much richer conception is needed. Organisations should be considered as serving three sets of purposes. They are themselves purposeful systems and have their own goals, objectives and ideals which must be taken into account. But they also contain, as parts, other purposeful systems: individuals, whose aspirations must be met. And they exist, themselves, as parts of wider purposeful systems whose interests also should be respected. Hence corporations have responsibilities to themselves (control problem), to their parts (humanisation problem) and to the wider systems of which they are parts (environmentalisation problem). Managers should seek to serve the purposes of all three "layers", developing all the organisation's
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course MGT 03 taught by Professor Kasra during the Spring '11 term at Tanta University.

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