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page_149 next page > Page 149 the enterprise are organised into planning boards, with heads of units at each level being members of boards at three levels: their own and the ones immediately above and below. At the highest level, representatives of external stakeholders are represented on Board 1 and, at the lowest, all workers are members of their unit's Board. Although this arrangement may seem unwieldy and time consuming at first, with some managers being on as many as perhaps ten boards, Ackoff's experience is that the benefits in terms of co-ordinated activity, organisational integration and motivation (which are what a manager should be spending his or her time on anyway) are very considerable. Of all the questions asked of the participative principle, the most frequent must surely be: "What is the role of professional planners in this process?" and "How does higher management react to having to involve other stakeholders, especially low- level employees, in planning?" Ackoff replies that
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course MGT 03 taught by Professor Kasra during the Spring '11 term at Tanta University.

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