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< previous page page_160 next page > Page 160 Participation is essential to interactive planning: philosophically because it provides the justification for believing in the "objectivity" of the results, and practically because it generates creativity and commitment and ensures implementation. Perhaps because of its significance, Ackoff plays down the obstacles to full and effective participation. To get started, interactive planning depends on all the stakeholders being prepared to enter into participative planning concerning the future. But will the powerful be willing to forego their dominant position and submit their privileges to the vagaries of idealised design? Ackoff replies that full participation may certainly meet with some resistance from powerful stakeholders. But there are ways around this, such as by introducing other stakeholders as consultants first, then gradually increasing their role. In any case, the criticism that full and equal participation cannot be immediately realised is a poor reason for not making whatever progress can be made.
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course MGT 03 taught by Professor Kasra during the Spring '11 term at Tanta University.

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