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< previous page page_187 next page > Page 187 reached on what action to take. This is really a very limited view of why problem situations occur. It ignores, for example, the cybernetic insight that organisations can fail to function properly because communication and control systems are poorly designed. The idea of cybernetic "laws", which must be obeyed when all complex systems are being organised, is simply not taken seriously by the soft systems thinking of Checkland. Further, the possibility that difficulties arise in organisations because different individuals and groups have differences of real interest cannot be conceptualised within the logic of SSM. It is a common-sense notion that organisations are arenas of political infighting and conflict over status and resources, but there is little in SSM (except the impoverished study of power relations which is Analysis 3) which seems to acknowledge the existence of such tensions. In essence, and to use
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