spss - Preliminary Analysis--Descriptive...

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Unformatted text preview: Preliminary Analysis--Descriptive Statistics.--Checking the reliability of a scale. Statistical Analysis Using SPSS 12.0 By Pallant Descriptive Statistics Categorical Variables Continuous Variables Assessing Normality Checking For Outliers Procedure for Categorical Variables From the menu at the top of the screen click on: Analyze, then click on Descriptive statistics, then frequencies Choose and highlight the categorical variables you are interested in. Move these variables into the variable box . Click on the statistics button. In the dispersion section tick Minimum and Maximum . Click on continue and then OK . Procedure for Continuous Variables From the menu at the top of the screen click on: Analyze , then click on Descriptive Statistics , then Descriptives. Click on all the continuous variables that you wish to obtain descriptive statistics for. Click on the arrow button to move them into the variables box . Click on the options button. Click on mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, skewness, kurtosis. Click on continue , and then OK . Interpretation of Descriptive output This Information may be needed if these variables are to be used in parametric statistical techniques. Positive skewness values indicate positive skew. Negative skewness values indicate clustering of scores at the high-end. Positive kurtosis values indicate that the distribution is rather peaked with long thin tails. Kurtosis values below 0 indicate a distribution that is relatively flat. Procedure for Assessing Normality From the menu at the top of the screen click on: Analyze , then click on Descriptive Statistics , then Explore. Click on the variable/s you are interested in. Click on the arrow button to move them into the Dependent List box. Click on any independent or grouping variables that you wish to split your sample by. Click on the button to move them into the Factor List box. Procedure for Assessing Normality (Cont) In the Display section make sure that Both is selected. This displays both the plots and statistics generated. Click on the plots button. Under Descriptive Click on the Histogram. Click on Normality Plots with Tests. Click On Continue. Click on the Options button. In the Missing Values Section click on Exclude cases pair wise . Click on continue and then OK . Interpretation of output from Assessing Normality Compare the original mean with new trimmed mean you can see whether some of your more extreme scores are having a strong influence on the mean. Skew ness and Kurtosis values are also provided as part of this output. Test of Normality will also give the result of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. A non significant (sig. value more than .05 )result indicates normality. Interpretation of output from Assessing Normality (Cont) The Detrended Normal Q-Q plots displayed in the output are obtained by plotting the actually deviation of the scores from the straight line.of the scores from the straight line....
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spss - Preliminary Analysis--Descriptive...

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