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azadtarana - 5 A Review of the Literature 5.1 A Definition...

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5. A Review of the Literature 5.1 A Definition of Leadership The term “Leadership” has defined as the nature of influencing progression – and its consequential results – that occurs between a principal and supporters and how this manipulating process is described by the leader’s dispositional characteristics and behaviours, follower perceptions and attributions of the manager, and the framework in which the manipulate process occurs (Antonakis, Cianciolo and Sternberg, 2004). They also adds that leadership requires direction and guidance in organizational human resources towards the strategic objectives of the organization; this is to ensure that the organizational functions are aligned with the external environment. Harvard Business Review on Leadership (1998:63-64) says that leadership is ‘all about persistence, tough-mindedness, hard work, intelligence, analytical ability and tolerance and good will’. It further says that leadership inevitably requires using power to influence the judgment and activities of other people. Adair, J., (2002: 284) adds any one can be a leader and that the ‘wiser should govern the less wise’ regardless of gender. According to Small Business-Canada (20 10) leadership is the set of jobs of motivating a number of people to act towards achieving an identical goal. A leader inspires and directs action; possesses the combination of personality and skills that make others want to follow the direction. “Leadership is the ability to communicate” said by Harvard Business Review on Leadership (1998:63-64). This includes the words and the factual information to others. The site also talks about whether a leader is born or made? It says that, while people who seem to be endowed by nature with more leadership capacity than others, I believe that people can gained to be leaders by more stressing on improving particular leadership
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highlights. It is also mentioned that Leadership is a winning combination of personal traits and the ability to think as the chief and also be able to react, a person who dictate jobs to others to achieve goal. Harvard Business Review on Leadership (1998: 38-41) also says that leadership and management are two distinguishing and harmonizing systems in action. Some people may be excellent as managers but they may not be good leaders and vice versa. It also says that management is about coping with complexity whereas leadership is about coping with change; management deals complexity by planning and budgeting whereas leadership does it by setting a direction; management organizes and staffs whereas leaders align people; management accomplishes a plan by controlling and problem solving whereas leaders do it by motivating and inspiring. Advanced Institute of Management (2010) indicates understanding of leadership supports distinct but complementary views of how leaders influence their organisational contexts.
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