Lecture 6_Chem 102SP[1]

Lecture 6_Chem 102SP[1] - Chapter 5 Gases Gas Stoichiometry...

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Chapter 5 Gases
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Gas Stoichiometry
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Molar Volumes and Standard Pressure and Temperature S tandard T emperature and P ressure ( STP ) The conditions T = 0 o C and P = 1 atm The molar volume of an ideal gas is the volume occupied by one mole of the gas at STP V= 22.4 L STP T = 0 o C P = 1 atm V= 22.4 L     1.000 mol 0.08206 L atm/K mol 273.2 K V = = = 22.42 L 1.000 atm  nRT P
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Example 1. A sample of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) occupies 210 L at 27 o C at 1200 Torr. What volume would it occupy at STP ? Molar Volumes and Standard Pressure and Temperature
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Standard Temperature and Pressure Practice • A sample of neon gas used in a neon sign has a volume of 15 L at STP . What is the volume (L) of the neon gas at 2.0 atm and –25°C?
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d = density of gas T = temperature in Kelvin P = pressure of gas R = universal gas constant Molar Mass of a Gas     g L atm K g L mol K = = atm mol Molar mass =       dRT P
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Molar Mass of a Gas Example 2. What is the density of F 2 at STP (in g/L)?
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Chapter 6: THERMOCHEMISTRY
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The Nature of Energy THERMOCHEMISTRY Enthalpy and Calorimetry Hess’s Law Standard Enthalpies of Formation
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Energy • capacity to do work or to produce heat Kinetic Energy • energy that something has because it is moving Potential Energy • energy that something has because of its position (or composition) The Nature of Energy
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Law of Conservation of Energy • energy can neither be created nor destroyed • the total amount of energy in the universe is a constant • energy can be transformed from one form to another
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KE = 1/2 mv 2 m = mass (kg) v = velocity (m s –1 ) v 2 = (m 2 s –2 ) Kinetic Energy – energy of motion units are kg m 2 s –2 J (Joule) The Kinetic Energy of an object is the energy due to the motion of an object and depends on the mass of the object (m) and its velocity ( v ). Energy can be converted from one to another. sometimes the calorie is used instead of the joule: 1 cal = 4.184 J = 4184 kJ 1000 cal = 1 kcal
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Initial Position •In the initial position, ball A has a higher potential energy than ball B. ball A is released…
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Final Position •After A has rolled down the hill, the potential energy (PE) lost by A has been converted to random motions of the components of the hill (frictional heading) and to the increase in the potential energy of B.
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Lecture 6_Chem 102SP[1] - Chapter 5 Gases Gas Stoichiometry...

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