224s.09.lec3

224s.09.lec3 - CS 224S LINGUIST 281 Speech Recognition...

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Unformatted text preview: CS 224S / LINGUIST 281 Speech Recognition, Synthesis, and Dialogue Dan Jurafsky Lecture 2: TTS: Brief History, Text Normalization and Part-of-Speech Tagging IP Notice: lots of info, text, and diagrams on these slides comes (thanks!) from Alan Black’s excellent lecture notes and from Richard Sproat’s slides. Outline I. History of Speech Synthesis II. State of the Art Demos III. Brief Architectural Overview IV. Text Processing 1) Text Normalization • Tokenization • End of sentence detection • Methodology: decision trees 2) Homograph disambiguation 3) Part-of-speech tagging • Methodology: Hidden Markov Models Dave Barry on TTS “And computers are getting smarter all the time; scientists tell us that soon they will be able to talk with us. (By "they", I mean computers; I doubt scientists will ever be able to talk to us.) History of TTS • Pictures and some text from Hartmut Traunmüller’s web site: • http://www.ling.su.se/staff/hartmut/kemplne.htm • Von Kempeln 1780 b. Bratislava 1734 d. Vienna 1804 • Leather resonator manipulated by the operator to try and copy vocal tract configuration during sonorants (vowels, glides, nasals) • Bellows provided air stream, counterweight provided inhalation • Vibrating reed produced periodic pressure wave Von Kempelen: • Small whistles controlled consonants • Rubber mouth and nose; nose had to be covered with two fingers for non-nasals • Unvoiced sounds: mouth covered, auxiliary bellows driven by string provides puff of air From Traunmüller’s web site Closer to a natural vocal tract: Riesz 1937 Homer Dudley 1939 VODER • Synthesizing speech by electrical means • 1939 World’s Fair Homer Dudley’s VODER • Manually controlled through complex keyboard • Operator training was a problem An aside on demos • That last slide • Exhibited Rule 1 of playing a speech synthesis demo: • Always have a human say what the words are right before you have the system say them The 1936 UK Speaking Clock From http://web.ukonline.co.uk/freshwater/clocks/spkgclock.htm The UK Speaking Clock • July 24, 1936 • Photographic storage on 4 glass disks • 2 disks for minutes, 1 for hour, one for seconds. • Other words in sentence distributed across 4 disks, so all 4 used at once. • Voice of “Miss J. Cain” A technician adjusts the amplifiers of the first speaking clock From http://web.ukonline.co.uk/freshwater/clocks/spkgclock.htm Gunnar Fant’s OVE synthesizer • Of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm • Formant Synthesizer for vowels • F1 and F2 could be controlled From Traunmüller’s web site Cooper’s Pattern Playback • Haskins Labs for investigating speech...
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2011 for the course CS 224 taught by Professor De during the Spring '11 term at Kentucky.

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224s.09.lec3 - CS 224S LINGUIST 281 Speech Recognition...

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