224s.09.lec17

224s.09.lec17 - CS224S/LING281 SpeechRecognition,Synthesis...

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CS 224S/LING 281  Speech Recognition, Synthesis,  and Dialogue Dan Jurafsky Lecture 17: Disfluencies
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Outline Disfluencies Characteristics of disfluences Detecting disfluencies MDE bakeoff Fragments
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Disfluencies
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Disfluencies:  standard terminology (Levelt) Reparandum : thing repaired Interruption point (IP):  where speaker  breaks off Editing phase  (edit terms): uh, I mean,  you know Repair : fluent continuation
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Why disfluencies?
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Counts (from Shriberg, Heeman) Sentence disfluency rate ATIS: 6% of sentences disfluent (10% long  sentences) Levelt human dialogs: 34% of sentences disfluent Swbd: ~50% of multiword sentences disfluent TRAINS: 10% of words are in reparandum or editing  phrase Word disfluency rate SWBD:  6% ATIS: 0.4% AMEX  13% (human-human air travel)
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Prosodic characteristics of  disfluencies Nakatani and Hirschberg 1994 Fragments are good cues to disfluencies Prosody: Pause duration is shorter in disfluent silence than  fluent silence F0 increases from end of reparandum to beginning of  repair, but only minor change Repair interval offsets have minor prosodic phrase  boundary, even in middle of NP: Show me all n- | round-trip flights | from Pittsburgh | to Atlanta
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Syntactic Characteristics of  Disfluencies Hindle (1983) The repair often has same structure as reparandum Both are Noun Phrases (NPs) in this example: So if could automatically find IP, could find and correct  reparandum!
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Disfluencies and LM Clark and Fox Tree Looked at “um” and “uh” “uh” includes “er” (“er” is just British non-rhotic  dialect spelling for “uh”) Different meanings Uh: used to announce minor delays Preceded and followed by shorter pauses Um: used to announce major delays Preceded and followed by longer pauses
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Um versus uh: delays (Clark and Fox Tree)
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Utterance Planning The more difficulty speakers have in planning, the more  delays Consider 3 locations: I: before intonation phrase: hardest II: after first word of intonation phrase: easier III: later: easiest And then uh somebody said, . [I] but um -- [II] don’t you  think there’s evidence of this, in the twelfth - [III] and  thirteenth centuries?
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Delays at different points in phrase
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Disfluencies in language modeling Should we “clean up” disfluencies before  training LM (i.e. skip over disfluencies?) Filled pauses Does United offer any [uh] one-way fares? Repetitions
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224s.09.lec17 - CS224S/LING281 SpeechRecognition,Synthesis...

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