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Unformatted text preview: Motivation Motivation Organizational Behavior Dr. Kristen Bell DeTienne Undergraduate OBHR Info Session 3 What’s the Plan for Today What’s (Agenda) (Agenda)
o Define Motivation Provide example from movie Provide example from movie observations Watch and Discuss a Video Clip Watch and Discuss a Video Clip Discuss OB Mod Discuss OB Mod Assess and redesign the Most Boring Assess and redesign the Most Boring Job
4 OB/HR Professional Development OB/HR Seminar Series - Fall 2009
This Thursday (Sept. 17) at 7 pm in W108 This Thursday (Sept. 17) at 7 pm in W108 TNRB Blaine Palmer, former Executive Director of HR for the State of Utah All OB/HR emphasis and other interested students should attend Pizza, drinks, networking, & information! Questions? [email protected] 5 – Keynote address: “New Challenges in HR and How to Prepare for Them” Motivation
o Motivation Something that causes an individual or group to act in a certain way.* Intrinsic Motivations – Things that internally Intrinsic Motivations motivate an individual to act (ex. Desire for achievement). Extrinsic Motivations – External forces that Extrinsic Motivations motivate an individual to act (ex. Pay). * “Motivate,” Oxford English Reference Dictionary (Revised Second Edition), New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 943. 6 Movie Observations Movie
Please provide an example of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation from the movie you watched 7 Apply motivation theory to this clip 8 9 Searching for Bobby Fisher o What motivations were driving the various characters (Josh, the teacher, the father, the mother)? Were the motivations intrinsic or extrinsic? Were the motivations intrinsic or extrinsic? How did this affect each of the characters?
10 10 Organizational Behavior Organizational Modification (OB MOD) Modification
o 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify the behavioral problem. Measure the frequency of the behavior. Identify the variables that keep this behavior going. Develop a way to overcome the behavioral problem and implement it. 5. If the behavior problem is favorably altered, maintain the new behavior. If it is not altered or is now worse, then start back on step 1.
*Luthans, F. and R. Kreitner, “The Management of Behavioral Contingencies,” Personnel, 1974, pp.716. A simple fivestep process of behavior analysis: 11 11 Job Design Theory*
o There are five core job dimensions (the job characteristics model): – Skill Variety – different activities requiring different skills – Task Identity – seeing one’s part in the completion of the endproduct – Task Significance – the impact that the job has on the lives of others – Autonomy – amount of personal responsibility and discretion that one has at work – Feedback – amount of clear and objective information on job performance
* Hackman, J.R. and G. R. Oldham, “Motivation Through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, August 1976, pp. 250279. 12 12 Practical Applications of the Job Practical Design Theory Design
o Job Redesign – Job rotation – Occasionally shifting employee tasks – Job enlargement – Giving employees more to do – Job enrichment – Giving employees more control over planning, decisions, and evaluation
13 13 Practical Applications of Job Design Theory
o Job Scheduling – Flextime – Allowing employees some power (with some restrictions) on setting their schedule – Job Sharing – Splitting a job between two or more people – Telecommuting – Working at least two days in a work week away from work via computer
14 14 The Most Boring Job The
o If you feel you’ve had the most boring job in the class, please describe the job for us. As a class, we’ll vote As a class, we’ll vote on what the most boring job in the class is. Winner gets a prize. Winner gets a prize. 15 15 The Most Boring Job (Continued)
o Students get to ask questions of the person with the most boring job in preparation for the job redesign. 16 16 Groups Redesign the Boring Job
Work with your group to redesign the most boring job Some groups will volunteer and some will be volunteered to present their redesign to the class The class will vote for the best redesign Prizes for the group with the best redesign 17 17 “The idea of eternal progress is one of the most powerful ideas in our theology. It gives us hope when we falter and challenge when we soar. Surely this is one of the great “solemnities of eternity” that we are commanded to let ‘rest upon [our] minds’ (D&C 43:34).”* Dallin H. Oaks Does this statement reflect intrinsic or extrinsic motivation? Why?
*Dallin H. Oaks, “Powerful Ideas,” Ensign, Nov. 1995, 25 18 18 19 19 Examples of Intrinsic Examples Motivation Theories Motivation
o GoalSetting Theory Job Design Theory Job Design Theory 20 20 Goal-Setting Theory*
o People are motivated by their intentions (intentions being expressed through goals) Goals are most effective when they are: Goals are most effective when they are: – arrived at by both the employee and employer rather than imposed by the employer – realistic – challenging – specific – followed up with feedback (it is best when feedback is both from yourself and management)
*E. A. Locke, “Motivation Through Conscious Goal Setting,” Applied and Preventitive Psychology, February 1996, pp. 11724.
21 21 Practical Applications of Practical Goal-Setting Theory Goal-Setting
o Performance Goals The type of goal depends on the industry The type of goal depends on the industry and the company. Examples Examples – Banks – Number of new accounts – Sales Teams – Number of new products sold – Customer Service – Speed with which a customer complaint is resolved
22 22 Examples of Extrinsic Examples Motivation Theories Motivation
o Expectancy Theory Reinforcement Theories Reinforcement Theories 23 23 Expectancy Theory*
o Behavior is dependent on: – The attractiveness of an outcome – How much an individual believes his/her action will lead to the final outcome – Whether or not the individual perceives that he/she can give the effort to achieve the action (and thus the outcome) * Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley 24 24 Practical Applications of Practical Expectancy Theory Expectancy
o Variable Pay Plans – PieceRate Pay Plans – Getting paid by the amount of product produced – Bonuses – Rewarding high performance with extra pay – ProfitSharing Plans – Distributing a portion of profits to those who contributed to the profit boost (based on profitability) – Gainsharing – Distributing productivity gains to those who contributed to the gains (based on productivity)
25 25 Reinforcement Theories
o The idea that behavior is guided by the outcome of an action not by the intention. (This is the opposite of goalsetting theory). If an outcome is desirable the behavior will be If an outcome is desirable the behavior will be continued. If an outcome is undesirable the behavior will be If an outcome is undesirable the behavior will be discontinued. 26 26 Practical Applications of Practical Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement
o SkillBased Pay Plans – Pay is based on the skills that employees have 27 27 Kristen, Here is how I suggest we revise the memo. Please respond w/ any other suggested changes and then I’ll forward it to the Deans. By the way, I think you are doing a TERRIFIC job already as OB/HR group head. I really couldn’t be happier. One thing about me is that I am rarely completely satisfied with work product (I’m a very challenging reviewer) but that doesn’t mean I am dissatisfied. I’m just kind of a perfectionist on some things. So please don’t take my critiques or suggestions for changes (on anything you bring to me) as dissatisfaction. I also need to remember to praise and give credit when it’s due. And you deserve praise for the job you are doing. Thanks again for you’re work. I’m really enjoying the opportunity to work with you. Best. Jeff Jeff Dyer Horace Beesley Professor of Strategy Marriott School, BYU 790 Tanner Building Provo, UT 84602 801.422.5742 28 28 Kristen, I’ve emailed all the folks below except Nathan Washburn. Teppo knows him well, so I’ve asked him to contact Nathan. I’ll let you know when I hear back and will forward vitas. Thanks again for your kind comments today. It’s great (and quite rare, I think) to be in a place with such supportive and encouraging colleagues. I’m honored to be here. John 29 29 Everyone should prepare an answer to the following questions: Does the following poster represent intrinsic or extrinsic motivation? Be prepared to defend your answer 30 30 31 31 Motivation Test
o www.businessballs.com 32 32 Case Study: Case Christmas Bonus Christmas
Ever since XY Corp started 30 years ago management has rewarded their employees with a bonus check just before Christmas. The check is handed out at a company meeting the week before Christmas. The employees have come to expect it and are always very appreciative. For the past three years the bonus has been $200 at the lowest level in the company. For the past two years or so the XY Corp management team has been brainstorming on how to attract better employees and how to retain the great workforce that they already have. They have investigated what other companies in and out of their industry have been doing. In addition, they have gone to their employees to get some suggestions. The one idea that they consistently see popping up is building a gym onsite at work. 33 33 Christmas Bonus
This Christmas season, as the employees sit down to listen to the Christmas meeting, there is an unexpected announcement. One of the managers has just explained all of the data that they have collected to make the workplace even better. He also explains that the management team has decided to replace this year’s Christmas bonus (as well as next year’s) so that the company could build a gym with that money that they normally would give out. He also explains that the money saved by not paying the bonuses is not even a quarter of the expense of the gym but that the company will “gladly pick up the tab for the rest of the expense.” Instead of the great applause and cheering that management expected there is a wave of murmuring and mumbling throughout the whole room. As if the lack of gratitude at the meeting didn’t say enough, during the whole next week most of the employees seem negative and frustrated. The management team is baffled by this reaction. They felt that they were doing their employees a favor by building this gym and that not giving the Christmas bonus was a small sacrifice. They thought that keeping it a surprise and announcing it at Christmas would even add a bigger affect. 34 34 Discussion: Christmas Bonus
o Get with your groups and discuss the following questions: – What are some possible reasons that this situation did not go as planned? – Should XY Corp give their employees any sort of reward if they are going to react so unfavorably? Why, or why not? – What does this case have to do with motivation? – What are some approaches that you might have done differently? – What would you do to rectify the situation?
35 35 Social Information Processing
o The perception of the employee is the determinant of the motivational effect that each motivational factor will have. The perceptions of the employees are affected The perceptions of the employees are affected by attitudes and perceptions of those around them. 36 36 Example of Example Social Information Processing Social
Your whole life you have lived close to an amusement park that has some of the best roller coasters in the world. For the last five years in a row “Santa Claus” has bought you a season pass and you have never felt bored of the place. The last time you visited there you had a blast, as always. While you were looking around it seemed that everyone was having so much fun—even the workers there. You thought to yourself, “I bet this is the best place in the world to work.” You also remembered that your mom is threatening to kick you out of the house if you don’t get a job. On your way out of the park you decided to pick up a job application.
37 37 Example of Social Information Example Processing (Continued) Processing
After you turned in your application you were called to set up a job interview. The interview goes great and the person interviewing you hires you on the spot. She said that you could start as soon as next week if you wanted. You are so excited to have landed a job there that you can’t wait to tell everyone. But when you start telling people where you got a job they laugh. They then proceed to tell you all of the horror stories that they have heard about working there. You laugh with them but try not to let those stories affect you. After all, at least you have a job. 38 38 Example of Social Information Example Processing (Continued) Processing
Your first day of work goes well enough. The only problem is that all of the employees complain about the low wages, the bad working conditions, and all of the “annoying kids” they have to deal with every day. Again you tell yourself that these guys have just been working too many hours. After two weeks of work and incessant complaints from your coworkers you find yourself also resenting your job. Just a few weeks later, you are almost ready to leave the job because of the bad working conditions that you have to put up with. 39 39 Discussion: Example of Social Discussion: Information Processing Information o What happened? Did anything about the company actually Did anything about the company actually change? Why did you change from being so excited about Why did you change from being so excited about the job to resenting it?
40 40 Posted by: "Matthew Willden" recent BYU MBA Performance management: it goes out to nearly everyone (excludes Band 1, or hourly employees, and some Band 2s, which are lower skilled entrylevel jobs). But everyone else participates. And I mean everyone. Nearly every manager who does performance evaluation uses a corporatewide system, called Honeywell Performance Development (Cori and I are on the committee for it this year, by the way, which should be pretty cool). Goals roll out topdown, with executives creating their goals for the year, which are communicated to their direct reports, who incorporate those into their own goals, and then communicate to their direct reports, and so on. So in my goals for this year are quite a few elements from my boss (HR director) and his boss (HR VP) and the CEO’s goals. Pretty interesting, actually. The process is concluded early in the year, usually Februaryish, where manager & direct report analyze how the direct report performed against last year’s goals, and then assessing a merit increase based on that assessment. They will also establish goals for the coming year, which should be checked up on occasionally, with a formal midyear review scheduled late August or early September every year. 41 41 Reports are rated on a 3x3 matrix (yeah, I know, a huge and innovative departure from that bulwark of MBAs and consultants: the 2x2 matrix). On one axis is the degree to which the person demonstrated the 12 Honeywell Behaviors. On the other axis is the degree to which they produced results on their goals and objectives for the year. A “9block” is nearly perfect on both, and so on down to a 1block, who is someone who will soon be asked, “Not counting today, how long have you worked at Honeywell?” :) Like most performance management systems, there has been drift over the years, where most people fall within the four blocks in the upperleft hand corner. Most rewards are simply given out by the manager, either in a team meeting or just oneonone. But larger awards are given in a more public fashion, particularly the “Chairman’s Award for Everyday Heroes,” given to people who do a particularly good job of serving customers, and other recognition given for obtaining significant new business or a major cost saving. Those are advertised on the intranet or sent out in electronic communications. And some are even awarded in broadcast CEO town hall meetings. 42 42 Conclusion
I’d like a volunteer to summarize major points from our discussion today Any questions on your group service learning project? Group time 43 43 Terry Tate
What does Terry do to motivate the organizational members? How do you think the people in the organizations feel about him and management? Have you ever had a job where management does something to try to motivate you and you just didn’t agree with their tactic? 44 44 Terry Tate 45 45 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2011 for the course ORG B 321 taught by Professor Kristendetienne during the Fall '10 term at BYU.
- Fall '10