Session 19 (Conflict and Negotiation)

Session 19 (Conflict and Negotiation) - Conflict and...

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Unformatted text preview: Conflict and Negotiation Conflict Organizational Behavior Dr. Kristen Bell DeTienne What’s the Plan for Today What’s (Agenda) (Agenda) Define and Discuss Conflict; Watch Clip Define Negotiation; Do Negotiation Activity Review Bargaining Strategies Analyze and Discuss a Case Study Analyze Watch and Discuss a Video Clip 2 Conflict Defined* Conflict – When an individual or group perceives that they are being, or will be, negatively affected by another individual or group. or A key concept here is perception. If there key is no perception of harm than there is no is harm. harm. *Robbins, S. P. Essentials of Organizational Behavior (Eighth Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson *Robbins, 3 Prentice Hall, 2005, p. 193. Prentice Different Views on Conflict Traditional View – Conflict is bad Human Relations View – Conflict is inevitable so accept it and work with it inevitable Interactionist View – Conflict is encouraged to a certain point (try to have some) some) 4 Task Interdependence – When one individual or group Ex. The doctor has to wait on the x-ray department in order to Ex. tell the patient what is wrong. tell Causes of Intergroup Conflict has information or resources that others depend on the possibility of conflict tends to increase. possibility Goal Incompatibility – When an individual or group has responsibilities that are in direct conflict with the goals or duties of another individual or group. duties Ex. The production department is concerned with precision and Ex. quality (which requires more time) while the sales team is trying to get as many sold as possible (which requires more product). to 5 The Conflict Process The 1.Potential conflict 1. 2.Cognitions 3.Intentions 4.Behaviors 5.Outcomes Outcomes 6 Application of Concepts Be prepared to discuss the causes of the Be conflict in the video clip conflict Task interdependence? Goal incompatibility? Analyze the stages of conflict Analyze demonstrated in the clip demonstrated 7 Remember the Titans 8 Remember the Titans What were some of the causes of the What conflict in this situation? conflict What stages of conflict did you see What depicted? How would you resolve this kind of How conflict? conflict? 9 Functional Versus Dysfunctional Functional Conflict Conflict Functional Dysfunctional Uncontrolled Improves decisions Uncontrolled opposition opposition Stimulates creativity Stifles creativity Provides interest Frustrates Allows for problems to Frustrates Allows communication and be addressed be evaluation evaluation Seeks for evaluation 10 10 Four suggestions for creating functional conflict:* Foster more communication -- Information can give leverage in the company. Avoid imbalances that create conflict by giving more people access to crucial information. information. Create competition – If your organizational culture is conflict averse begin programs that facilitate conflict (i.e. reward for department with highest sales). (i.e. Alter the organizational structure – If there is too much conflict make it more open. If there is not enough make it more closed so people compete more for necessary resources. for Recruit outside experts – Invite a consulting company to help open the doors for more functional conflict. to *Cherrington, D. J. and W. G. Dyer, “Creating Effective Organizations (4th Ed.), Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company: Iowa, 2004, 319-320. 11 11 How to Facilitate How Functional Conflict Functional Preview of Four Strategies for Preview Resolving Intergroup Conflict Resolving Each one may work in different situations Avoidance Power Intervention Diffusion Resolution *Cherrington, D. J. and W. G. Dyer, “Creating Effective Organizations (4th Ed.), Kendall/ 2 12 1 Hunt Publishing Company: Iowa, 2004, 315-319. Avoidance By avoiding a conflict management hopes By that it will just go away. This is most likely if the conflict is minimal and doesn’t disrupt major organizational functions. There are two primary avoidance There strategies: strategies: Ignore the conflict Separate those who are in conflict 13 13 Power Intervention Power intervention occurs when a manager Power imposes a solution to the conflict. imposes There are two main strategies by which There managers do this: managers Establish rules or procedures Establish that limit conflict and regulate interpersonal or intergroup interactions. or One group may use political One influence to force the other group to comply to their solution. solution. 14 14 15 15 Diffusion In this phase of conflict resolution In management addresses the issue and usually involves the individuals or groups to solve the conflict. solve Three methods to diffuse conflict: Smooth over the conflict by helping those in Smooth conflict see their similarities and by rationalizing away points of conflict away Create a compromise where both groups have Create to give and take in order to overcome the conflict conflict Create a common enemy. When groups feel Create externally threatened they often put aside internal differences 16 16 Resolution Resolution is based on management identifying the Resolution problem and removing the source of the conflict. problem There are four main ways to do this: Create an environment that fosters more intergroup interaction Create and communication. Bringing the leaders of opposition together or mixing up the groups also Bringing helps. helps. Establish or reemphasize goals that both parties share that are Establish more important than the minor conflicts. Don’t just tell the groups this but help them see it for themselves. Perform a joint problem-solving session where conflict causes Perform are realized and overcome. This is different from compromise because compromise will often focus on This each side defending their side without an effective review of the causes. each Restructure the organization so that cooperation is imperative Restructure and communication is regular and necessary. and 17 17 Negotiation Defined 2 or more people Exchanging goods or services Exchanging goods Trying to find an exchange rate Trying exchange 18 18 Negotiating Pair up in twos with someone around you. Decide which one of you wants to be a Decide buyer and which one of you wants to be an seller. an Spend the next couple of minutes Spend negotiating the following deal. negotiating Do not disclose your given situation to the Do other person. other 19 19 Negotiating A black 2004 Acura RSX is for sale by black owner. It is in good condition. owner. 20 20 Seller Situation Buyer Situation Been saving money for two Been years now to buy a nice ride. years Have $5,000 in the bank and Have good credit at home (just in case you might need an incase house loan). Desired buying price is Desired $10,000. Won’t pay more than $16,500. $16,500. High Blue Book (excellent High condition, retail) is $16,000. condition, Really needs to buy a car this Really week to go visit his ailing grandmother before she passes away. passes Really hoping for a BLACK Really Acura and this is the only one currently for sale in Utah. currently Graduating soon. Moving to China for Graduating an international job opportunity. an Need $9,000 for last minute moving Need expenses so decided to sell the car. expenses Know the car is in good shape and Know $12,000 is not an unreasonable price for what is being offered. for Desired selling price is at least Desired $13,000. Won’t accept less than $8,500. Low Blue Book (poor condition, wholesale) is $7,500. condition, Really needs to sell the car this week Really to buy the airline ticket to China. Travel agent said that prices will likely go up next week because it won’t be a two-week advance purchase. two-week Has had a hard time selling the car Has because buyers complain that black1 21 2 cars get too hot and show dirt . cars Class Discussion Would you qualify your negotiation as a zerosum situation or a win-win negotiation? What did the sellers learn from the buyers that What helped them in the negotiation? helped How many sellers asked what’s important to buyer? What did the buyers learn that helped them What negotiate better? negotiate What did the seller throw in “for free”? Who gained the most out of the deal (if Who anyone)? anyone)? 22 22 Distributive Bargaining vs. Distributive Integrative Bargaining Integrative Distributive Zero-sum mentality Short-term time frame Integrative Win-win mentality Long-term time frame 23 23 Tips to Effective Tips Integrative Bargaining Integrative Establish what you value in the deal Set your limits Find out what the other person values in the Find deal deal Communicate your understanding of what the Communicate other person wants and ensure that you understand one another understand Seek to find the best solution for each other Remember that the way you negotiate will have Remember a long-term affect on your reputation and the relationship When the deal is made, celebrate together 24 24 *Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., Minton, J. W., and Barry, B., Negotiation (Fourth Edition). McGrawHill Companies, Inc: New York, 2003, p. 2-9. Job Interview The season for job interviews has rolled around The again. This round of interviews is a little different for Sally Betz. For one thing, she was finishing her undergraduate degree in marketing and had done very well in her academic career. Another aspect that had changed was that she just got married to Joe Shmo who still has three years left in school. Sally and Joe have decided that it would be best for the family if she would get a job. Sally is excited about this because she loves marketing and she feels that this would be a great opportunity to try out her skills in the real world. real 25 25 After a couple of promising interviews there After is one company in particular that is especially interested in Sally. This is a well-known company that would even let her work at home most of the time while her husband is in school. As she goes into her second interview, she is aware that there are three other very qualified individuals. However it seems that the company is leaning in her favor. 26 26 The second interview is going great! She has The answered all of the interviewers questions with confidence and accuracy. As the interview wraps up the interviewer asks, “Sally, what are your career goals? And more specifically, where do you see yourself in five years?” years?” Sally’s heart stops. She knows her career goals. Sally’s She wants to work for about two years and then take a break from her career to have children. After that she plans on starting up her career again (which could be 20 years down the road). However, she doesn’t even know if she can have kids, and if she can, when they will come. come. 27 27 If Sally tells the interviewer where she thinks If she will be in five years she knows that it is unlikely that he will hire her. But she feels that this is a great opportunity and it wouldn’t be fair for her to lose it just because she plans on having children. having • What are the bargaining chips in this situation? What • Is it okay for Sally to tell the interviewer that she plans Is on being in the business in five years? on • What would you do? 28 28 Return of the Jedi 29 29 Return of the Jedi What did either party desire out of the What deal? deal? What bargaining tactics were used? 30 30 31 31 Cohesiveness Ultimately groups want to be cohesive in Ultimately order to create a more effective team that performs at an optimal level. performs 32 32 Factors that Lead to Cohesiveness Interpersonal Attraction. When a team is composed of individuals with similar interests, common beliefs, and shared expectations cohesion is very likely. shared Frequency of Interaction. Typically, the more a group meets together, formally and informally, the more likely they are to be united. Initiation Ritual. The harder it is to get in the team the more likely it is that the team will act cohesively. Agreement of Group Goals. The more a team agrees on their goals the more likely they are to be cohesive. their Group Success. The more successful a group is the more likely that they will stand as a unified team. more Outside Threats. External threats create a cohesion within the team in order to overcome the threats. 33 33 *Cherrington, D. J. and W. G. Dyer, “Creating Effective Organizations (4th Ed.), Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company: Iowa, 2004, 302-303. Cooperation Cooperation vs. vs. Competition Cooperation – when individuals or groups work together to accomplish one goal. together Competition – when individuals or groups strive to obtain one goal simultaneously but there can only be one successful individual or group. only Both of these aspects can help an organization Both achieve higher effectiveness but management needs to carefully assess when cooperation will be more beneficial than competition and visa versa. versa. 34 34 Gossip in Organizations Research shows that 65 percent of Research people’s conversations involve the fine art of dishing. This is true: fine Whether men or women Next-door neighbors Coworkers CEOs 35 35 So is it True? Research indicates that 75% of what is Research carried through the grapevine is accurate carried 36 36 Where do People Hear Gossip? Coworkers-36% Friends-35% Parent/Sibling Tabloids Other Family 37 37 Gossip is a way to Bond Perform Social Grooming Establish Social Status Create a Community Gently Deliver Bad News 38 38 But Beware! Gossip can: Earn you a bad reputation 39 39 Gossip at Work If it’s pure gossip—avoid the If situation/change the topic situation/change Squeeze, don’t strangle Everyone but you seems to know why Everyone the Partner has taken an unexpected leave of absence. You’d like to know, too. too. Can you ask a colleague? Can you ask directly? 40 40 What if you are the subject of What gossip at work? gossip Should you ignore the rumors? 41 41 What if the Gossip is About You? Strike First Don’t Lie Usually, the truth will come Usually, out. out. If someone asks you, fess up. You need to confirm or deny. You Or more? Or 42 42 Three Times Not to Gossip Three If you have in your possession strong If evidence that the rumor is a lie. evidence If you realize that in spreading the If gossip you have the potential to do harm by slandering another person’s reputation. reputation. If you know that passing along the If information will negatively affect relationships that are important to you or the other person. or 43 43 Any gossip questions? 44 44 Name:________________ Name:________________ Quiz Chapter 13 1. “Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.” 2. Please explain guidelines for managers for handling conflict. The book describes five; write Please about the ones you remember. (These were in the blue box at the end of the chapter; they are based upon the principles from the chapter.) based 3. 4. 4. 5. 6. 7. True or False? There are four views of conflict: The Traditional View, the Human Relations True View, the Interactionist View, and the Progressive View. True or False? The Human Relations View encourages conflict on the grounds that a True harmonious, cooperative group is less likely to become static, apathetic, and non-responsive to needs for change. The major contribution of the Human Relations View is encouraging group leaders to maintain an ongoing, minimal level of conflict. group True or False? The book argues that the difference between negotiation and bargaining is True that negotiation involves two people and bargaining involves groups of people. that True or False? The winner’s curse means that people have a tendency to anchor their True winning judgments on irrelevant information, such as an initial offer. winning True or False? Two of the tips for managers in managing conflict are (1) that it is usually best5 True 45 4 to use collaboration, and (2) that managers should use collaboration on: important issues for which unpopular actions need implementing. which ...
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