Osteokinematic Principles

Osteokinematic Principles - Joints & Movement:...

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Arthrokinematics & Osteokinematics Normal structure, function, & mechanical behavior
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Gross bone structure Wide variety of sizes, shapes, & structural characteristics (ear ossicles to femur) Bone categories long - dominant type in the extremities short - carpal/tarsal bones flat - skull, sternum, scapula irregular - vertebrae
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Bone Tissue Cortical bone (compact bone) 5-30% porous forms the external shell of all bones primary type in the diaphysis of long bones lamellar in thicker regions contains haversian systems
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Bone Tissue Trabecular bone (cancellous/spongy bone) 30-90% porous fills the end of long bones primary constituent of many flat or irregular bones Porous regions of both cortical & trabecular bone are filled with blood, blood vessels, yellow marrow (fat) & red marrow (blood)
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Bone Function providing a framework to support the body providing movable links for motion serving as a point of attachment for shock absorption protection of viscera storage of calcium, magnesium & sodium
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Adaptation in Bone Wolff’s Law - states that bone remodels itself in response to the forces it is exposed to, making itself better able to withstand those forces Bone is responsive to mechanical stimuli as an initiating event in its adaptation the nature of the response will be specific & proportional to the challenge provided
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Joints Classification & types synarthroses (immovable); sutures/gomphoses amphiarthrodial (slightly movable); synchondroses (symphysis pubis) diarthrodial (freely movable); synovial joints 1-, 2-, 3-degrees of freedom
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Synovial Joint Structure
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Articular Cartilage Hyaline (articular surfaces of synovial joints, in growth plates, in costal cartilages) does not receive neural supply (no pain) Function load transmission load dispersion small amount of shock absorption reduce friction between adjacent surfaces
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Articular Cartilage Joint lubrication - synovial fluid lubricates the bearing (articular) surfaces provides nutrients to joint cartilages primary constituents are water & hyaluronic acid Injuries chemical/metabolic insults (hemophilia) prolonged immobilization (most common type)
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Articular Cartilage With prolonged immobilization… production & circulation of synovial fluid is greatly reduced mechanical stimulation of the cartilage is reduced local areas of cartilage may be under prolonged compression pannus formation may occur (granulation tissue)
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Joints Normal joint function - arthrokinematics understanding of how joint surfaces articulate
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Osteokinematic Principles - Joints & Movement:...

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