• Cytoskeletal filaments: protein polymer chains in the cell, and other proteins that bind them, used for support, movement, etc o Microtubules: used for intracellular transport, made of tubulin proteins (alpha and beta), exist in vivo as heterodimers, form protofilaments (groups of 13, usually), GTPases: Tubulin dimers bind GTP; Tubulin-GTP adds to the (+) end of the filament; Once in the microtubule, the GTP is almost immediately hydrolyzed, leaving a GTP cap on the (+) end. Tubulin: building blocks of microtubules Heterodimer: chemical or biological entity consisting of two structurally similar (but different) subunits called monomers, which are joined by bonds, which can be strong or weak • Monomer: a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers, polymerize according to concentration of monomers (all three), concentration of accessory proteins (microtubules and microfilaments), and phosphorylation (intermediate filaments) o Thymosin : monomer buffer, used to control monomer concentration
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