Anatomy and Cell Types of the Nervous System

Anatomy and Cell Types of the Nervous System - •...

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Anatomical positions/directions: 1. Sagittal, coronal or frontal, horizontal, median 2. Anterior or ventral (toward front of the body) Posterior or dorsal (toward back of the body) 3. Cranial or superior (upper) Caudal or inferior (lower) 4. Medial (near to the medial plane) Lateral (farther from the medial planes) 5. Proximal (nearer to the central axis of the body) Distal (farther from the central axis) 6. Rostral (toward the beak or nose) Caudal (away from beak/nose) Two distinct classes of cells in the nervous system 1. Nerve cells (neurons): Unipolar cells: one process (axon) extending from cell body, very rare in human system Bipolar cells: two processes (axon and dendrite) extending from cell body
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Unformatted text preview: • Multipolar cells: multiple dendrites, one axon from cell body 2. Glial cells (neuroglial cells or glia): • Astrocytes: star-shaped; functions: nutrition, expidite recovery of injured neurons, absorption of exocellular K+ ions, most common glial cell • Oligodendrocytes: form myelin sheaths of CNS axons; decreases capacitance of internode area; decreasing current across the membrane, decreasing energy loss and increasing conduction speed • Ependymal cells: epithelial cells that line CSF-filled vesicles in the brain, circulate CSF...
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