Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases - form the myelin sheaths of the...

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Autoimmune diseases: antigen initiates an immune response; resulting antigen receptors cross- react (bind) with a self protein (auto antigen) that mimics the antigen; as a result, the immune system recognizes the self as foreign; self protein may be inhibited, or the expressing cells affected; strong familial component o Type I diabetes: autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells (0.3%) o Grave’s disease: autoimmune attack on the thyroid gland; largest cause of hyperthyroidism (0.25%) o Multiple sclerosis: slowly progressive disease of the brain and spinal cord (0.75%) o Rheumatoid arthritis: systematic disease with specific attacks on joints (1%) o Celiac disease: 1% Schwann cells: form the myelin sheaths of the peripheral nervous system Myelin sheath: not a “substance”; cellular structure with a unique lipid and protein composition Oglidendrocytes:
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Unformatted text preview: form the myelin sheaths of the central nervous system Nodes of Ranvier: area between myelin sheaths; causes salutatory connections Myelin basic protein: in the ogliodendocyte membrane; o presented by the oglidendrocyte as a prospective antigen in people with MS, then recognized as foreign by T cells; after this, lymphocytes induce apoptosis of ogliodendrocytes and macrophages, destroy the ogliodendrocytes; slows conduction greatly, weakness and lack of coordination results o leukocytes accumulate in the area of degenerated Schwann cells; inflammation squishes the neuron, sometimes killing it; anesthesia, paralysis, and granulomas result Treatments: immunosuppressants, interferons, decoy molecules, T cell vaccination (induce an immune response against TCRs); long-term cocktail of antimicrobials...
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