{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Oxidative compounds

Oxidative compounds - organelle membranes • Nitric oxide...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
o Oxidative compounds: usually include reactive oxygen species (ROS) - s uperoxide (·O 2 - ) and peroxide (O 2 -2 ), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) - Nitric oxide (·NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO - ) ; mitigated via enzyme scavengers, glutathione (GSH) (an “antioxidant”)Produced: By numerous cells, during many disease processes, as an unfortunate cause or side-effect In almost all cells, all the time, for cell signaling By white blood cells, during inflammation, to fight infection In mitochondria, all the time, as a normal byproduct Superoxide: amongst other things, carbonylates proteins; can react with other reactive compounds to make them worse o Carbonylation: any reaction that introduces a carbonyl group into a compound, especially by reaction with carbon monoxide Peroxide: o Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions: generate hydroxyl radicals from peroxide Hydroxyl radicals: initiate free radical chain reactions in lipids, damaging cell and
Image of page 1
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: organelle membranes • Nitric oxide: free radical, gas, diffusible signaling molecule for both intra cellular and inter cellular signaling, synthesized from arginine by nitric oxide synthases; activates a protein kinase, which itself regulates proteins; regulates proteins directly, which have various roles around the body (vasodilation, killing of bacteria by immune cells, terminates free radical chain reactions); function in neurons isn’t always clear (some parasympathetic nerves generate it as a neurotransmitter, important for motor neuron survival, but how and why?, control of excitability) • NO + O2- : fastest known reaction in chemistry; both can be produced in large quantities in pathologic conditions, producing peroxynitrite (ONOO-) o Peroxynitrite (ONOO-): in the presence of CO 2 , ONOO-reacts with proteins, often leading to necrosis or apoptosis Necrosis: Apoptosis:...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern