Oxidative compounds

Oxidative compounds - organelle membranes Nitric oxide:...

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o Oxidative compounds: usually include reactive oxygen species (ROS) - s uperoxide (·O 2 - ) and peroxide (O 2 -2 ), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) - Nitric oxide (·NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO - ) ; mitigated via enzyme scavengers, glutathione (GSH) (an “antioxidant”)Produced: By numerous cells, during many disease processes, as an unfortunate cause or side-effect In almost all cells, all the time, for cell signaling By white blood cells, during inflammation, to fight infection In mitochondria, all the time, as a normal byproduct Superoxide: amongst other things, carbonylates proteins; can react with other reactive compounds to make them worse o Carbonylation: any reaction that introduces a carbonyl group into a compound, especially by reaction with carbon monoxide Peroxide: o Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions: generate hydroxyl radicals from peroxide Hydroxyl radicals: initiate free radical chain reactions in lipids, damaging cell and
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Unformatted text preview: organelle membranes Nitric oxide: free radical, gas, diffusible signaling molecule for both intra cellular and inter cellular signaling, synthesized from arginine by nitric oxide synthases; activates a protein kinase, which itself regulates proteins; regulates proteins directly, which have various roles around the body (vasodilation, killing of bacteria by immune cells, terminates free radical chain reactions); function in neurons isnt always clear (some parasympathetic nerves generate it as a neurotransmitter, important for motor neuron survival, but how and why?, control of excitability) NO + O2- : fastest known reaction in chemistry; both can be produced in large quantities in pathologic conditions, producing peroxynitrite (ONOO-) o Peroxynitrite (ONOO-): in the presence of CO 2 , ONOO-reacts with proteins, often leading to necrosis or apoptosis Necrosis: Apoptosis:...
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2011 for the course BIME 2102 taught by Professor Kim during the Spring '11 term at UVA.

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