Review_Exam2

Review_Exam2 - CHM 11500 Atomic radii (pm) of the...

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CHM 11500
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Increase Atomic radii (pm) of the main-group elements Decrease Z eff increases n dominates Z is the
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Summary
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4 Predicting Bonding Types Metal plus metal gives metallic Metal plus non-metal gives ionic Non-metal plus non-metal gives covalent
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Trends in Metallic Behavior Metals tend to lose electrons from their valence shells and form positive ions, cations. Nonmetals tend to add electrons to their valence shells and form negative ions, anions, or they share electrons with metalloids or other nonmetals
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6 Li( g ) + F 2 ( g ) 1 2 H 0 Step 1 (∆ H of Li) 0 Atom Li( g ) F 2 LiF( s ) H 0 overall ( H ) 0 f Enthalpy, H Li( s ) Li( s ) + F 2 ( g ) 1 2 F 2 H ( BE of F 2 ) 0 step 2 1 2 Li( g ) + F( g ) Li F i H 0 Step 3 (IE 1 of Li) Li + ( g ) + F( g ) F Li + H 0 Step 5 ( H of LiF) 0 lattice F H 0 Step 4 Li + ( g ) + F ( g ) (EA of F) Li + 520 kJ -328 kJ -1050 kJ 161 kJ 80 kJ -617 kJ What stabilizes ionic compounds?
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7 Lattice energy Lattice energy: Energy change accompanying formation of one mole of an ionic solid from its ions in the gas phase. Li + (g) + F (g) LiF(s) H o lattice = – 1050 kJ/mol Mg 2+ (g) + O 2 - (g) MgO(s) H o lattice = - 3923 kJ/mol
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Period 1: n = 1 shell Period 2: n = 1 shell , n = 2 shell Period 3: n = 1, n = 2 shells, n = 3 shell Period 4: n = 1, n = 2, n = 3 shells, n = 4 shell Shell Structure Core Orbitals Outer Orbitals Ionization energy ~ 1 MJ/mole Ionization energy usually > 10 MJ/mole
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Valence Orbitals For transition metal elements, partially filled inner (n-1)d shell often among the valence e - Core Orbitals Outer Orbitals Outer Orbitals = Valence Orbitals Valence orbitals are involved in bonding; i.e., in electron loss or gain. Ionization energy ~ 1 MJ/mole Ionization energy > 10 MJ/mole Shell Structure
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Periodic trends in composition across periods Na 2 O MgO Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 P 2 O 5 SO 3 Cl 2 O 7 NaF MgF 2 AlF 3 SiF 4 PF 5 SF 6 ClF 7 NaH MgH 2 AlH 3 SiH 4 PH 3 H 2 S HCl
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Electrostatic attraction and repulsion in covalent compounds H 1s orbital H 2 covalent bond
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Energy of H• + •H Electrostatic repulsion Little interaction Electrostatic attraction See page 406 in your text Equilibrium position
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Multiple Bonds Sometimes pairs of atoms can gain an even greater energy advantage by sharing more than one pair of electrons Bond Order : the number of pairs of electrons that are shared between two atoms.
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question Which of these has a bond with a bond order of 3 ?
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question Which of these has the shortest sulfur-nitrogen bond? (Lone pairs have been omitted.)
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Review_Exam2 - CHM 11500 Atomic radii (pm) of the...

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