113286.pdf - The Islamic University of Gaza Deanery of Postgraduate Studies Faculty of Education Curriculum English Teaching Methods Department The

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Unformatted text preview: The Islamic University of Gaza Deanery of Postgraduate Studies Faculty of Education Curriculum & English Teaching Methods Department The Effect of Using a Videoconferencing-based Strategy on UNRWA 9th Graders' English Speaking Skills and their Attitudes towards Speaking Submitted by: Jehan Mahmoud Ashour Supervised by: Prof. Awad Soliman Keshta A Thesis Submitted to the Curriculum & English Teaching Methods Department- Faculty of Education - in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master Degree in Education May, 2014 ‫الجامعة اإلسالميــــــة – غــزة‬ ‫عمـــادة الدراســــات العليـــــــا‬ ‫كليـــــــــــة التـــــــــربيـــــــــة‬ ‫قسم المناهج وطرق التدريــس‬ ‫أثر استخدام استرياتيجية مبنية على الفيديو كونفرينس على مهارات‬ ‫التحدث باللغة اإلجنليزية لدى طالبات الصف التاسع مبدارس األنروا‬ ‫واجتاهاتهن حنو التحدث‪.‬‬ ‫إعداد‪ /‬جيهان محمود عاشور‬ ‫رقم جامعي‪001111022 :‬‬ ‫إشراف‬ ‫أ‪ .‬د‪ .‬عوض سليمان قشطة‬ ‫قدمت هذه الرسالة استكماالً ملتطلبات الحصول على درجة املاجستري يف املناهج وطرق التدريس‪ /‬لغة‬ ‫إنجليزية بكلية الرتبية من الجامعة اإلسالمية بغزة‬ ‫‪1241‬هـ ‪ 0112 -‬م‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ ‫ه‬ ِ ‫ح َي ْينَاهُ َوجَعَ ْلنَا َلهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي ِب‬ ْ ‫﴿ َأوَمَن كَانَ َم ْيتًا َف َأ‬ ﴾‫ج َّمِنْهَا‬ ٍ ‫س بِخَا ِر‬ َ ْ‫فِي النََّاسِ كَمَن َّمَثَ ُلهُ فِي الظَُّلُمَاتِ َلي‬ 211 ‫ اآلي‬:‫سورة األنعام‬ And is one who was dead and We gave him life and made for him light by which to walk among the people like one who is in darkness, never to emerge therefrom? Thus it has been made pleasing to the disbelievers that which they were doing. ( 6:122) III DEDICATION To the soul of my parents IV ACKNOWLEDGMENT " O my Lord! Grant me that I may be Grateful for Thy favour which Thou hast bestowed upon me, and upon both my parents, and that I may work righteousness such as Thou mayest approve; And be gracious to me in my issue. Truly have I turned to Thee and truly do I submit ( to thee ) in Islam (pp 1548-1549 )The Holy Quraan. English Translation of the Meaning and Commentary. I'd like to thank all those who supported me along the path of hard working and searching. Bouquet of thank you flowers to Professor: Awad Keshta, for his stimulating and warm advice and his massive faith in my capacities since the sunshine of ideas until the last word was written. Another bouquet was deserved by Dr. Muhammed Ateya Abd Al Rahim whose thoughts guided, inspired and enlightened my work. The third bouquet will be granted to Mr. Tawfiq Shehada, B/Lahia and B/Hanoun AEO, Biet Lahia Girls' Prep. School Principal, New Jabalia Elem Girls' School staff and Biet V Hanoun Girls' Prep School ( B ) management and staff for their patience and endurance. A parallel thank you bouquet will be gifted to Chelsea Community Hospital School – London. Mainly School Principal: Mrs Janette Steel, Mr. Shaun Dolan and my warm and beautiful friend Joanna Eaves. Each flower will whisper, "Without you all, this dream would never have come true". My last bouquet will be very big as it was already prepared with lots of colours. Each flower will go to one of my friends, colleagues and family members who supported me with their usual warm, understanding, support and patience. I love you all! VI The Abstract The Effect of Using a Videoconferencing-based Strategy on UNRWA Ninth Graders' English Speaking Skills and their Attitudes towards Speaking This study aimed at investigating the effect of a videoconferencing-based strategy on UNRWA Ninth Graders' English Speaking Skills and their Attitudes towards speaking skill. The speaking sub-skills which were the study's focus were fluency, accuracy and appropriacy. The researcher chose her representative purposeful participants from Biet Lahia Girls' school which is run by UNRWA in north Gaza area and consisted of (60) participants equally divided into two groups; (30) students were assigned as the control group and the other (30) students were assigned as the experimental group. The researcher designed three tools; the achievement test to measure the students' speaking achievement, the observation card to observe the students' speaking development, and the attitude scale to determine the changes towards speaking skill occurred due to the implementation of the experiment. The researcher also used the strategy, the content analysis to help the researcher build the achievement test and the strategy, the interview to investigate the changes happened due to the implementation in their personalities, life skills and speaking English as well. The experiment was applied during the first term of 2013-2014 scholastic year and used speaking functions in Grade Nine, English for Palestine, Student's book. The experiment lasted for 15 lessons given online by 8 British teachers who received a scanned copy of their lessons, lesson preparation model, powerpoint presentations and proposed worksheets. The results of the study revealed that the videoconferencing-based strategy affected positively in the students' English language speaking skills. The researcher interviewed the participants who showed that they benefited from the British teachers in removing speaking English hesitation, shyness, and lack of trust. On the other hand, the implementation of the strategy helped in increasing the students' selfVII confidence, enhancing their searching skills and improving their self-learning strategies. It also changed positively the students' attitudes towards speaking English language skill. Due to these findings,, the researcher recommends the Palestinian teachers to be in contact with teachers all over the world to exchange experiences and discuss new methodologies in teaching English with them. She also recommends English language experts to arrange different workshops for teachers to implement online technologies in teaching English language skills and other workshops and welcome experts from different countries to promote education and be aware of new education theories and applications. VIII ‫ملخص الدراسة‬ ‫أثر استخدام استيراتيجية مبنية على الفيديو كونفيرنس على مهارات التحدث باللغة اإلنجليزية لدى‬ ‫طالب الصف التاسع في مدارس األنروا واتجاهاتهم نحو مهارة التحدث‬ ‫تهدف هذه الدراسة للتحقق من تأثير استيراتيجية مبنية على الفيديو كونفيرنس على مهارات التحدث باللغة‬ ‫اإلنجليزية لدى طالب الصف التاسع في مدارس وكالة الغوث واتجاهاتهم نحو مهارة التحدث باللغة اإلنجليزية‬ ‫ومهارات التحدث الفرعية الثالث‪ :‬الطالقة‪ ،‬الدقة والمالءمة‪ .‬من أجل هذا الغرض‪ ،‬اختارت الباحثة عينتها‬ ‫القصدية من مدارس وكالة الغوث – شمال غزة وهي مدرسة بنات بيت الهيا اإلعدادية‪ ،‬وتمثلت عينتها في (‪)06‬‬ ‫طالبة وزعت بشكل متكافيء ومتساو لمجموعتين‪ :‬ضابطة وتجريبية‪.‬‬ ‫صممت الباحثة ثالث أدوات لجمع المعلومات الخاصة بدراستها‪ ،‬وهي االختبار التحصيلي لمعرفة إذا ما كان‬ ‫لتطبيق االستيراتيجة من تأثير على تحصيل الطالبات في مهارة التحدث باللغة اإلنجليزية‪ .‬كما استخدمت الباحثة‬ ‫بطاقة المالحظة لتدوين تطور الطالبات خاصة وأن بعض مهارات التحدث ال يمكن قياسها من خالل االختبار‬ ‫الكتابي‪ .‬كما أعدت الباحثة مقياسا لقياس اتجاهات الطالبات نحو مهارة التحدث والتغيرات التي قد تطرأ على‬ ‫االتجاهات بسبب تطبيق االستيراتجية‪ .‬إال أن الباحثة استعانت بتحليل المحتوى لبناء االختبار التحصيلي‪،‬‬ ‫ولتصميم االستيراتيجية‪ .‬كما استعانت ببطاقة المقابلة لمعرفة أهم الفوائد التي عادت على الطالبات نتيجة الستخدام‬ ‫االستيراتيجية التي لها عالقة بمهاراتهم الشخصية والحياتية ومهارة التحدث باللغة اإلنجليزية‪.‬‬ ‫طبقت الدراسة خالل الفصل األول في العام الدراسي ‪ ،3602-3602‬حيث قام ثمانية معلمين بريطانيين بشرح‬ ‫وظائف اللغة التي وردت في الفصل األول من كتاب اللغة اإلنجليزية المقرر للصف التاسع وتم حصرها من‬ ‫خالل تحليل المحتوى الذي قامت به الباحثة‪ ،‬بلغ مجموع الدروس التي تلقتها طالبات الصف التاسع من المعلمين‬ ‫البريطانيين والباحثة (خمسة عشر) درسا‪.‬‬ ‫أرسلت الباحثة للمعلمين نسخة من الكتاب المدرسي المقرر عبر البريد االلكتروني‪ ،‬نموذج تحضير للدروس‪،‬‬ ‫عرض تقديمي بوربوينت‪ ،‬وأوراق عمل تتعلق بجميع الدروس قبل البدء بتطبيق الدروس‪.‬‬ ‫أوضحت الدراسة من خالل المقابلة البعدية التي طبقت مع عينة الدراسة أن استخدام استيراتيجية مبنية على‬ ‫الفيديو كونفيرنس في تدريس مهارات التحدث لطالبات الصف التاسع له تأثير على الطالبات يؤدي المتالك‬ ‫الطالبات لهذه المهارات‪ ،‬كما أن تلقي الطالبات الدروس من المعلمين البريطانيين باستخدام التكنولوجيا أدى‬ ‫لتخفيف مستوى كل من التردد‪ ،‬الخجل وعدم الثقة لدى الطالبات‪ .‬كما أنه أسهم في بناء الذات‪ ،‬تطوير‬ ‫استيراتيجيتي البحث والتعلم الذاتي لدى الطالبات‪ .‬كما أن االستيراتيجية قد ساهمت في تغيير اتجاهات الطالبات‬ ‫نحو مهارة التحدث باللغة اإلنجليزية‪.‬‬ ‫وبناء على هذه النتائج‪ ،‬فإن الباحثة قد حثت المعلمين الفلسطينيين على التواصل مع معلمين من مختلف أنحاء‬ ‫العالم لتبادل الخبرات معهم ومناقشة طرق حديثة لتدريس اللغة اإلنجليزية‪ .‬كما حثت خبراء اللغة اإلنجليزية‬ ‫التربويين على عقد ورش عمل للمعلمين والترحيب بالخبراء من مختلف أنحاء العالم عبر الفيديو كونفيرنس أو‬ ‫بلقاءات من خالل الزيارات أو المؤتمرات بهدف تطوير التعليم ومعرفة نظريات التعليم الحديثة‪.‬‬ ‫‪IX‬‬ Table of contents No. Title Page 1. Dedication 2. Acknowledgement 3. Abstract in English 4. Abstract in Arabic 5. Table of contents 6. List of Appendices 7. List of tables 8. List of figures 1 Chapter I Study background Page 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The need and rationale for the study 3 1.3 Statement of the problem 4 1.4 Research questions 4 1.5 Research hypotheses 5 1.6 Purpose of the study 5 1.7 Significance of the study 5 1.8 Operational definition of terms 7 1.9 Limitations of the study 9 Summary 9 Chapter II Study Section 1: Literature Review Part 1: Videoconferencing 2.1 What is videoconferencing? 12 2.2 Types of videoconferencing 13 2.3 Equipment needed to set up a videoconference 14 2.4 Videoconferencing Applications 17 2.5 Videoconferencing in Education 18 2.6 Motivations of using videoconferencing in teaching 20 2.7 Videoconferencing in teaching languages 22 2.8 Videoconferencing in teaching speaking skills 26 Chapter II Study Section 1: Literature Review X Part 2: Speaking 2.9 Language 28 2.10 Communication 29 2.11 Functions of communication 30 2.12 Communication process 31 2.13 Human communication properties 33 2.14 Types of human communication 34 2.15 Speaking 37 2.16 Importance of speaking skill 39 2.17 Speaking as a process 40 2.18 The speaker 41 2.19 Practicing English speaking skill 43 2.20 Barriers of speaking English with high professionalism 44 2.21 Speech forming process skills 47 2.22 Aspects of speaking 52 2.23 Teaching English speaking skill 54 2.23.1 Pre-speaking teaching phase: planning and organizing 55 2.23.3 Ongoing speaking phase 62 2.23.2 Post-speaking: A time for reflection and setting further 63 goals 2.24 Speaking sub-skills 64 2.24.1 Fluency 64 2.24.2 Pronunciation 65 2.24.3 Grammar 66 2.24.4 Vocabulary 67 2.24.5 Appropriacy 68 2.25 Strategies for developing speaking skills 71 Summary 72 Chapter II Study Section 2: Previous studies 2.26 Previous studies 74 2.26.1 Implementing technology in teaching speaking 74 2.26.2 Implementing technology in English language skills 76 XI teaching 2.26.3 Implementing videoconferencing in teaching English 78 language speaking skill 2.27 Comments on the previous studies 81 Summary 83 Chapter III: Methodology 3.1 Type of research design 85 3.2 The study population and sample 85 3.3 Variables of the study 86 3.4 The study instruments 87 3.4.1 The achievement test 87 3.4.2 The observation card 96 3.4.3 The attitude scale 100 Highlight2: The experimental and control groups equivalence 104 3.4.4 The content analysis 106 3.4.5 The strategy 107 3.4.5.1 Analysis 109 3.4.5.2 Design 112 3.4.5.3 Development 114 3.4.5.4 Implementation 116 3.4.5.5 Evaluation 116 3.4.6 The interview 118 Summary 118 Chapter IV: Results: Analysis of data 4.1 The first hypothesis results analysis 119 4.2 The second hypothesis results analysis 122 4.3 The third hypothesis results analysis 124 4.4 The fourth hypothesis results analysis 125 4.5 The fifth hypothesis results analysis 127 4.6 The sixth hypothesis results analysis 129 4.7 The seventh hypothesis results analysis 130 Summary 131 XII Chapter V: Discussion and findings, conclusion, pedagogical implications and recommendations 5.1 The findings 134 5.1.1 The findings of the first question. 135 5.1.2 The findings of the second question. 136 5.1.3 The findings of the third question. 136 5.1.4 The findings of the fourth question. 137 5.1.5 The findings of the fifth question. 138 5.1.6 The findings of the sixth question. 139 5.1.7 The findings of the seventh question. 139 5.2 Conclusion 140 5.3 Pedagogical implications 142 5.3.1 Students 142 5.3.2 Teachers 144 5.3.3 Teaching 144 5.3.4 Teaching speaking 144 5.4 Recommendations 145 5.4.1 Teachers 145 5.4.2 Course designers 145 5.4.3 English language experts 145 5.4.4 Other researchers 146 Summary 146 References 147 Appendices 163 XIII List of tables Table Title Page No 2.1 A comparison between kinds of meetings 13 2.2 Dawley (2007) Strengths & Weaknesses of videoconferencing 22 2.3 Suggested solutions and evaluation of weaknesses of 24 videoconferencing 3.1 The control and experimental group equivalence in English 86 language united exams results 2012-2013 – term 2 3.2 Correlation coefficient of every item of the test with the total score 90 of the test 3.3 Test items to be deleted after finding the internal consistency 92 3.4 Different correlation for the questions with the total items. 92 3.5 KR-20 test reliability 93 3.6 Difficulty coefficient of the test questions 95 3.7 Discrimination coefficient of the test questions 96 3.8 The observation card reliability coefficient 98 3.9 Agreement coefficient between the two observers 98 3.10 Before the experiment's participants' percentage weight and mean 99 (Observer 1 ) and ( Observer 2 ) 3.11 After the experiment's participants' percentage weight and mean 100 (Observer 1 ) and ( Observer 2 ) 3.12 Pearson correlation coefficient for attitude scale items first domain 104 with the total score of the same domain 3.13 Pearson correlation coefficient for attitude scale items second 104 domain with the total score of the same domain 3.14 The consistency of the scale domains 104 3.15 Alpha cronbach correlation coefficient of the scale reliability 104 3.16 The experimental and control groups' equivalence in the pre 105 application for the speaking achievement test 3.17 The experimental and control groups' equivalence in the pre 105 application for the speaking attitude scale 3.18 The experimental and control groups' equivalence in the preXIV 106 application of the observation card 3.19 List of functions available in English for Palestine, Grade 9, 107 Student's book term 1 3.20 Schedule of videoconferencing meetings 111 4.1 t.test independent sample results of differences between the 119 experimental and the control group in the post speaking test 4.2 The table references to determine the level of effect size (η 2) and 121 (d) 4.3 "t" value, eta square " η 2 " , and "d" for each question and the 121 total score 4.4 U and Z value to examine the differences between the high- 122 achievers' attitudes towards speaking skills between the experimental group and the control group 4.5 "Z" value and Eta square " η 2 " for each skill and the total score 123 of the test 4.6 U and Z value to examine the differences between the total mean 124 scores of the low-achievers of the experimental group on the post test and that of their counterparts in the control group 4.7 t.test independent sample results of differences between the 124 experimental and the control group in the post application of the observation card. 4.7 t-test independent sample results of differences between the mean 123 score of the high-achievers of the experimental group and the mean score of the high-achievers of the control group in the post application of the observation card 4.8 U and Z value to examine the differences between the high- 126 achievers' scores mean in the post-application of the observation card between the experimental group and the control group 4.9 U and Z value to examine the differences between the high- 127 achievers' scores mean in the post-application of the observation card between the experimental group and the control group 4.9 "Z" value and Eta square " η 2 " for each question and the total score of the test XV 125 4.10 t.test independent sample results of differences between the 128 experimental and the control group in the post-application of the attitude scale 4.11 "t" value, eta square " η 2 " , and "d" for each domain and the 128 total score 4.12 U and Z value to examine the differences between the high- 129 achievers' attitudes towards speaking skills between the experimental group and the control group 4.13 "Z" value and Eta square " η 2 " for each domain and the total 130 score of the scale 4.14 U and Z value to examine the differences between the low- 130 achievers' attitudes towards speaking skills between the experimental group and the control group 4.15 "Z" value and Eta square " η 2 " for each domain and the total score of the scale XVI 131 List of appendices Appendix Title A The ( An AMX White Paper ) B The Referees' List C The Achievement Test D1 SOLOM Teacher Observation D2 SOLOM Teacher Observation Criteria D3 SOLOM Teacher Observation – Topics E1 The Attitude Scale – English Version E2 The Attitude Scale – Arabic Version F1 English for Palestine – Content Analysis F2 English for Palestine – Term 1 – Speaking Functions G1 The Interview – English Version G2 The Interview – Arabic Version H1 Facilitation Letters H2 The Parents Approval I1 The UNRWA Press Release I2 The Canterbury – UK Press Release J The Certificate of Completion K The British Council Schools Online Ambassador Letter L1 Speaking Lessons Preparation Notes L2 Speaking Lessons Preparation Powerpoint Presentations XVII List of Figures Figure Title Page 1.2 The Communication Process 32 2.2 A Summary of Oral Skills ( Bygate, 2003) 47 3.2 Pickering and Garrod Interactive Alignment 51 1.3 ADDIE Model 109 XVIII XIX Chapter I Study Background XX Chapter I Study Background 1.1. Introduction Human beings can never live in isolation; they share the planet so they need to exchange messages with their partners for specific purposes. They need to share messages about their needs, passions, pains, anger, favourites, dreams, plans, and discoveries. They also need to find different means to exchange messages about these different purposes. They can be involved in this process in what is known as communication when information flows from one person to another (Axley, 1984). Humans also developed various ways to exchange these messages (Stremel, 2008). Tassoni (2006) classified communication into four types; verbal, non-verbal, written and visual. The verbal one includes sounds, words, language and speaking. Whorf (1964) believed that language shapes the way we think and determines what we can think about. Simply, it is a means to transfer, record, text and register the ideas, feelings, discoveries, plans, experiences and knowledge people live. English as an international language is used by the wider communities rather than its native speakers (Mckay, 2002: 5). It plays an important role in everyday situations all over the world and deals with all aspects of life. It is the language of science, information, technology, politics, economics and education (Hamdona, 2007). Although Chinese Language is spoken by the third of the world's population, English is regarded as the most internationally used language (Wierzbicka, 2006:3). English is used by three groups of speakers: those who have inherited it as their birth tongue, those who have acquired it as a second language, and those who are compelled to use it for some special purposes as diplomats, businessmen, journalists, consultants, scientists, technologists, or students of literature (Schnoor, 2003: 17). At the close of the fifth millennium since recorded history began, English is unique amongst all languages (Clyne, 1992). No other world language has ever been put to so many uses by so many people in so many places (Salim,2007 :28) or on such a scale – on land, by sea, in the air and ...
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