thermal1_01_12_2011

thermal1_01_12_2011 - Definition of Temperature Lecture 1 A...

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Unformatted text preview: Definition of Temperature Lecture 1 A Brief History Prior to 18 th Century, society supports advances in medicine (health) and astronomy (navigation; time keeping) Other realms of science were viewed as a purely philosophic endeavor not much in the way of experiments mid 18 th Century (1750s); transition from rural to urban society start of Industrial Revolution; How is heat converted to work in a steam engine? 19 th Century (1800-1850) scientists were encouraged to study engines and their efficiency; is a perpetual motion machine possible? Two Laws of Thermodynamics emerge A Few Relevant Dates 1st Law of Thermodynamics ~1760 J. Black - discovers heat capacity, latent heat; inherently contradicts the c a l o r i q u e theory 1760-75 - J. Watt invents steam engine (condenser) 1794 Boulton and Watt - commercial steam engines; first attempts to define work, power, horsepower, etc. Originally, heat was thought to consist of a fluid called c a l o r i q u e 1798 Count Rumford established connection between mechanical work and heat 1842 J.R. von Mayer (heat + work) is conserved; initial formulation of 1 st Law 1850s J.P. Joule quantified heat & work in many ways mechanical, electrical, etc. ~1850s - C a l o r i q u e theory of heat finally overturned Late 1800s Clausius, Maxwell, Boltzmann kinetic theory of a gas A Few Relevant Dates Atomic Theory and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 1738 Bernoulli uses idea of atomic motion to calculate pressure 1790 Count Rumford (Benj. Thompson) questions caloric theory while boring out canons in Bavaria 1820 Herapath links heat with atomic motion...
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thermal1_01_12_2011 - Definition of Temperature Lecture 1 A...

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