thermal1_01_12_2011

thermal1_01_12_2011 - Definition of Temperature Lecture 1 A...

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Unformatted text preview: Definition of Temperature Lecture 1 A Brief History • Prior to 18 th Century, society supports advances in medicine (health) and astronomy (navigation; time keeping) • Other realms of science were viewed as a purely philosophic endeavor – not much in the way of experiments • mid 18 th Century (1750’s); transition from rural to urban society – start of Industrial Revolution; “How is heat converted to work in a steam engine?” • 19 th Century (1800-1850) scientists were encouraged to study engines and their efficiency; is a perpetual motion machine possible? • Two “Laws of Thermodynamics” emerge A Few Relevant Dates – 1st Law of Thermodynamics ~1760 – J. Black - discovers heat capacity, latent heat; inherently contradicts the c a l o r i q u e theory 1760-75 - J. Watt – invents steam engine (condenser) 1794 – Boulton and Watt - commercial steam engines; first attempts to define work, power, horsepower, etc. Originally, heat was thought to consist of a fluid called c a l o r i q u e 1798 – Count Rumford – established connection between mechanical work and heat 1842 – J.R. von Mayer – (heat + work) is conserved; initial formulation of 1 st Law 1850s – J.P. Joule – quantified heat & work in many ways – mechanical, electrical, etc. ~1850s - C a l o r i q u e theory of heat finally overturned Late 1800s – Clausius, Maxwell, Boltzmann – kinetic theory of a gas A Few Relevant Dates – Atomic Theory and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 1738 – Bernoulli uses idea of “atomic” motion to calculate pressure 1790 – Count Rumford (Benj. Thompson) questions caloric theory while boring out canons in Bavaria 1820 – Herapath links heat with “atomic” motion...
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2011 for the course PHYS 242 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

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thermal1_01_12_2011 - Definition of Temperature Lecture 1 A...

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