Manfra11-2011 - 3.1 Discovery of the X-Ray and the Electron...

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Unformatted text preview: 3.1 Discovery of the X-Ray and the Electron 3.2 Determination of Electron Charge 3.3 Line Spectra 3.4 Quantization 3.5 Blackbody Radiation 3.6 Photoelectric Effect 3.7 X-Ray Production 3.8 Compton Effect 3.9 Pair Production and Annihilation CHAPTER 3 Prelude to Quantum Theory Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947) New Problems due this Friday February 18th Chapter 3: 2, 4,14, 17, 18, 20, 25, 34, 37, 39 Wien’s Displacement Law The spectral intensity I ( λ , T ) is the total power radiated per unit area per unit wavelength at a given temperature. Wien’s displacement law : The maximum of the spectrum shifts to smaller wavelengths as the temperature is increased. The total power radiated increases with the temperature: This is known as the Stefan-Boltzmann law , with the constant σ experimentally measured to be 5.6705 × 10−8 W / (m2 · K4). The emissivity є (є = 1 for an idealized blackbody) is simply the ratio of the emissive power of an object to that of an ideal blackbody and is always less than 1. Stefan-Boltzmann Law Rayleigh-Jeans Formula Lord Rayleigh used the classical theories of electromagnetism and thermodynamics to show that the blackbody spectral distribution should be: It approaches the data at longer wavelengths, but it deviates badly at short wavelengths. This problem for small wavelengths became known as the ultraviolet catastrophe and was one of the outstanding exceptions that classical physics could not explain. Planck made two modifications to the classical theory: The oscillators (of electromagnetic origin) can only have certain...
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2011 for the course PHYS 342 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University.

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Manfra11-2011 - 3.1 Discovery of the X-Ray and the Electron...

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