Manfra23-2011

Manfra23-2011 - CHAPTER 8 Atomic Physics 8.1 Atomic...

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8.1 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table 8.2 Total Angular Momentum CHAPTER 8 Atomic Physics What distinguished Mendeleev was not only genius, but a passion for the elements. They became his personal friends; he knew every quirk and detail of their behavior. - J. Bronowski Dimitri Mendeleev
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7.5: Intrinsic Spin In 1925, grad students, Samuel Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck, in Holland proposed that the electron must have an intrinsic angular momentum and therefore a magnetic moment. Paul Ehrenfest showed that, if so, the surface of the spinning electron should be moving faster than the speed of light! In order to explain experimental data, Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck proposed that the electron must have an intrinsic spin quantum number s = ½ .
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Intrinsic Spin The spinning electron reacts similarly to the orbiting electron in a magnetic field. The magnetic spin quantum number ms has only two values, ms = ±½ . The electron’s spin will be either “up” or “down” and can never be spinning with its magnetic moment μs exactly along the z axis.
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Intrinsic Spin The magnetic moment is . The coefficient of is −2 μ B and is a consequence of relativistic quantum mechanics. Writing in terms of the gyromagnetic ratio , g : g ℓ = 1 and g s = 2 : The z component of . In an ℓ = 0 state: Apply ms and the potential energy becomes: no splitting due to . an d 2 L e L m μ= - r r Recall:
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Click to edit Master subtitle style 8.1: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table What if there’s more than one electron ? Helium: a nucleus with charge +2e and two electrons, the two electrons repelling one another. Cannot solve problems exactly with the Schrödinger equation because of
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Manfra23-2011 - CHAPTER 8 Atomic Physics 8.1 Atomic...

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