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Lecture1BIO155part1 - BIO155 Introduction to Biology with...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO155 Introduction to Biology with Laboratory Dr. Jessica Pamment Classes Monday/ Lecture 1:00 – 4:00 McGowan 149 Wednesday/ Lab 1:00 – 4:00 McGowan 149 COURSE REQUIREMENTS Punctual class attendance & sign in sheet One midterm exam and one final exam 3 quizzes 8 lab/homework assignments. They will be accepted up to one week past due date at 80% credit GRADING A. Midterm 1 (25%) B. Final exam (25%) C. Quizzes (20%) D. Homework/ lab assignments (30%) Textbook: Essential Biology, Fourth Edition Campbell, Reece & Simon Pearson Benjamin Cummings Laboratory Manual for Biology, Second Edition Jean Dickey Pearson Benjamin Cummings Essential Biology 4th Edition Core areas: 1. Cells 2. Genetics 3. Evolution 4. Ecology Main goals: 1. Relate content of course to every day lives 2. Clarify process of science 3. Emphasize evolution as the core unifying theme in biology Student Learning Objectives To understand the basic principles of Biological Sciences 1. Chemical foundation of biological sciences 1. Basics of composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 1. Principles of cell energy conversion, respiration, and photosynthesis Student Learning Objectives 4. Basic understanding of DNA replication and cell division 5. Principles of gene expression, from transcription to protein synthesis 6. Biotechnology: relevance to our everyday lives Biology is everywhere! everywhere! Overview • What is biology and why is it important? • The characteristics and organization of life • Evolution, the main unifying theme of biology • Scientific Method • Lab safety; writing a lab report What is Biology? • Greek origin • Bio­ life • Logos­ thought • Studies living organisms and how they interact with each other and their environment Order Response to the environment Evolutionary adaptation Regulation Energy processing Reproduction Growth and development Levels of Biological Organization Levels 1. The biosphere 6. Organs and organ systems 2. Ecosystems 9. Organelles 3. Communities Atoms 50 µm 8. Cells 7. Tissues 4. Populations 5. Organisms 10. Molecules Levels of Biological Organization Organization Levels of Biological Organization Organization Levels of Biological Organization Organization Ecosystems Ecosystems • Living and nonliving components of a particular area • Organisms interact continuously with their environment • Nutrients get recycled • Energy changes form, e.g. from light to heat Ecosystems Ecosystems • Dynamics of any ecosystem depends on two main processes: • The cycling of nutrients • The flow of energy Energy and Nutrient Flow in an Ecosystem Ecosystem Cells Cells • A cell is the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life Cells and their DNA Cells and their DNA • Cell is basic unit of living organism • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic are two major kinds of cells • All cells use DNA as chemical material of genes Eukaryotic Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells The The Language of DNA DNA Technology in the Drug Industry DNA Technology in the Drug Industry The Diversity of Life The Diversity of Life • Over 290,000 plants • Almost 52,000 vertebrates • More than 1 million insects • Each year new species being discovered • Estimated total species 10­200 million The Three Domains of Life The Three Domains of Life 1. Domain Bacteria­ prokaryote 1. Domain Archaea­ prokaryote 1. Domain Eukarya­ eukaryote i. Kingdom Plantae: make food by ii. iii. iv. photosynthesis Kingdom Fungi: mainly decomposers Kingdom Animalia: digest other animals Protists: mainly single­celled (multiple kingdoms) The Three Domains of Life The Three Domains of Life EUKARYA Land plants Green algae Dinoflagellates Forams Diatoms Ciliates Red algae Cellular slime molds Animals Amoebas Euglena Trypanosomes Leishmania Fungi Sulfolobus Thermophiles Green nonsulfur bacteria (Mitochondrion) Spirochetes Chlamydia Green sulfur bacteria Halophiles COMMON ANCESTOR OF ALL LIFE Methanobacterium BACTERIA Cyanobacteria (Plastids, including chloroplasts) ARCHAEA • Biology is the study of life and function Summary • Cells are an organism’s basic unit of structure • Organisms interact with their environment exchanging matter and energy information in the form of DNA life • The continuity of life is based on heritable • Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of Evolution Overview • History timeline • Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution • Evidence for evolution Biology’s Unifying Theme EVOLUTION Explains unity of all living things despite phenotypic diversity The central organizing concept in biology is that all of life has a common origin and has changed and developed through the process of evolution Evolution • Evolution is biology’s core theme • Descent with modification • Change in the inherited traits in a population of organisms from one generation to the next History of Evolution • 384­322 B.C. Aristotle viewed species as fixed • Late C18th Erasmus Darwin suggested all species arose from evolution, but suggested no mechanism ‘inheritance by acquired characteristics’ • 1809 Jean­Baptiste Lamarck suggested History of Evolution • 1809­1882 Charles Darwin proposed a theory of evolution through natural selection • Alfred Russell Wallace sends a manuscript to Darwin proposing basically same theory The Origin of Species • Darwin’s take home messages from his book: 1. Species alive today descended from ancestral species by the process of evolution 2. Natural selection is the mechanism for this process Evidence for Evolution • Direct observation • The fossil record • Homologies Artificial Selection Terminal bud Lateral buds Brussels sprouts Cabbage Flower clusters Leaves Kale Stem Wild mustard Flowers and stems Broccoli Kohlrabi Cauliflower Artificial Selection Artificial Selection Fossil Fossil Evidence (a) Pakicetus (terrestrial) (b) Rhodocetus (predominantly aquatic) Pelvis and hind limb (c) Dorudon (fully aquatic) (d) Balaena (recent whale ancestor) Pelvis and hind limb Homologous Structures umerus adius lna arpals etacarpals halanges Human Cat Whale Bat Natural Selection Natural Selection • Process by which heritable traits become more common in a population over successive generations • These heritable traits make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce Beak Variation in Galapagos finches (a) Cactus-eater (c) Seed-eater (b) Insect-eater Warbler finches Insect-eaters Green warbler finch COMMON ANCESTOR Gray warbler finch Seed-eater Sharp-beaked ground finch Bud-eater Vegetarian finch Mangrove finch Insect-eaters Cactus-flowereaters Seed-eaters Tree finches Ground finches Woodpecker finch Medium tree finch Large tree finch Small tree finch Large cactus ground finch Cactus ground finch Small ground finch Medium ground finch Large ground finch Descent with modification Darwin’s Observations • Darwin based his mechanism of natural selection on: competition • Observation 1: Overproduction and • Observation 2: Individual variation • Conclusion: Unequal reproductive success Natural Selection 1 Population with varied inherited traits. 2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits. 3 Reproduction of survivors. 4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success. Natural Selection inAction Natural Selection in Action • Antibiotic resistant bacteria • Drug resistant HIV Summary • Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life • Darwin suggested natural selection as a mechanism of evolution • Natural selection is ongoing today What is Science? What is Science? • Science: from latin ‘to know’ • 1. 2. Two main scientific approaches: Discovery science Hypothesis­driven science Discovery Science Discovery Science • Consists of verifiable observations and measurements reasoning • Leads to conclusions based on inductive • Inductive conclusion is a generalization that summarizes a large number of observations animals • Example: Darwin’s observations of plants and Discovery Discovery Science Hypothesis­Driven Science Hypothesis­Driven Science • The most popular way of following the scientific method • Consists of series of steps starting with a hypothesis that is formed • Uses deductive reasoning The The Scientific Method The The Scientific Method The The Scientific Method Scientific Method Observations Question Hypothesis #1: Dead batteries Hypothesis #2: Burnt-out bulb Scientific Method Hypothesis #1: Dead batteries Hypothesis #2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Test prediction Test prediction Test falsifies hypothesis Test does not falsify hypothesis Hypothesis vs. Theory Hypothesis vs. Theory • A theory is a hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested with little modification • A theory is much broader in scope than a hypothesis Science Science • Good science is not dogmatic; it is an • Science is just one of many ways of knowing about our world ongoing process of testing and evaluation • Art and religion are other ways of interpreting the world we live in Case Study: Can colors protect a Case Study: Can colors protect a snake? • Observation: many poisonous animals are brightly colored. There are also mimics that are bright but not poisonous • Question: What is the function of such mimicry? Case Study: Can colors protect a Case Study: Can colors protect a snake? • Observation: The eastern coral snake is marked • by rings of red, yellow and black. Predators rarely attack this snake The scarlet king snake mimics the ringed coloration of the coral snake but is not poisonous • Question: What is the function of the king snake’s mimicry of the coral snake? Mimicry in Snakes Mimicry Case Study: Can colors protect a Case Study: Can colors protect a snake? • Hypothesis: the king snake’s resemblance to the coral snake repels predators • Prediction: predators will attack brightly colored snakes less often than snakes lacking bright coloration Case Study: Can colors protect a Case Study: Can colors protect a snake? • Experiment: Use artificial snakes with either plain brown or bright coloration. Equal numbers placed in fields in North and South Carolina. Recorded number of attacks • Results: Plain brown snakes were attacked more frequently than brightly colored ones Artificial Snakes Snakes Results Results Key Features of Scientific Inquiry Key Features of Scientific Inquiry • A dependence on observations and measurements that can be verified by others • Hypotheses must be testable by experiments others can repeat Summary Summary • Discovery science is to do with observations that can be verified by others • Hypothesis­driven science is to do with coming up with testable hypotheses to answer questions about observations made • Importance of developing scientific and technological literacy in today’s society Review Questions Review Questions • • • • • • The life supporting region of Earth is the­ A. population B. biosphere C. ecosystem D. cell E. gene Review Questions Review Questions • • • • • • Most plants are ­ A. composed of prokaryotic cells B. unicellular C. producers D. consumers E. decomposers Review Questions Review Questions • • • • • • What is the fundamental unit of life? A. cell B. gene C. ecosystem D. DNA E. community Review Questions Review Questions • Which of these is a type of prokaryotic • • • • • cell? A. a worm cell B. a plant cell C. a mushroom cell D. a human cell E. a bacterial cell Review Questions Review Questions • What name is given to a tentative • • • • • explanation of a question? A. hypothesis B. observation C. theory D. deduction E. induction Review Questions Review Questions • Which of these is a key feature of • • • • • science? A. Science is moral B. Experiments need not be repeatable C. Scientific hypotheses must be testable D. Science is based on faith E. Science only utilizes deductive reasoning Review Questions Review Questions • Which of the following best describes a • • • • • theory? A. a well­known fact B. an experiment that is repeated over and over again C. a tentative explanation of natural phenomena D. a comprehensive explanation of natural phenomena supported by abundant evidence E. speculations that attempt to explain natural phenomena Laboratory Safety Guidelines Laboratory Safety Guidelines • Coats, backpacks, books have to be placed in designated areas, NOT on bench tops • Do NOT eat, smoke, drink, chew gum or apply cosmetics in the lab • Long hair must be tied back away from face • Remove dangling jewelry Laboratory Safety Guidelines Laboratory Safety Guidelines • Dress appropriately! Shirt must cover you from collarbone to waistband or you’ll be made to wear a lab coat • Shoes must cover toes • Cover cuts and scrapes with bandage • Wear disposable gloves when working with blood or mucous membranes. Dispose of gloves appropriately Laboratory Safety Guidelines Laboratory Safety Guidelines • Do not use equipment without instruction or perform unauthorized experiments • Keep flammable liquids away from flames. Work with them in fume hood • Never pipette by mouth • Report all spills and accidents to your instructor Laboratory Safety Guidelines Laboratory Safety Guidelines • Do not allow any liquid to come into contact with electrical cords • In case of fire evacuate the room in an orderly fashion and assemble outside the building • Do not pick up broken glassware with your hands. Use broom and dustpan. Dispose in designated glass waste containers Laboratory Safety Guidelines Laboratory Safety Guidelines • Leave the laboratory clean and organized for the next group of students • Wash your hands with soap prior to leaving the lab • Read the guidelines in your lab manual and acquaint yourselves with the symbols used in the book Writing a Scientific Report • Purpose of lab report: • Explain your investigation and significance in a scientific manner • Need to communicate your findings clearly • The design of the experiment is more important than the results Writing a Scientific Report • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sections: Title Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Conclusion Writing a Scientific Report • Title: • Statement of the problemyou are investigating • Place on cover page, with your name, instructor’s name, and date Writing a Scientific Report • Introduction: • Tells reader what investigation is about • Gives background information leading up to the experiment (including citations) • Gives brief summary of experimental design Writing a Scientific Report • Materials and Methods: • Give a detailed account of experimental procedure • Results must be able to be duplicated • Use past tense and be specific! Writing a Scientific Report • Results: • Present data in organized manner • All tables and figures must be numbered and have a title Writing a Scientific Report • Discussion: • Interpret the results, explain their significance • Discuss weaknesses of experimental method • Suggest future experiments Writing a Scientific Report • Conclusion: • One to two sentences long • Should repeat significant results from experiments • Don’t mention new information ...
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