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ethics STUDYGUIDE - Ethics20509Fall2010 1 Know the material...

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  Ethics 205-09 Fall 2010  Midterm Exam Study Guide  1. Know the material on the handouts (available on the class SLU Global site) on the main divisions of ethics, the six desiderata of a moral theory, the different versions of utilitarianism, and Aristotelian Virtue Ethics concepts. Main divisions of Ethics -Ethics: philosophical investigation of morality -Normative Ethics: attempts to answer moral questions -Moral theory: general moral questions ie: what to do, how to be -Applied ethics: specific moral questions about certain moral issues -Meta-ethics: attempts to answer nonmoral questions about morality -Moral semantics: questions the meaning of moral statements -Moral metaphysics: questions about the nature or existence of moral facts -Moral epistemology: questions about knowledge and justification of moral  statements Six Desiderata of a moral theory -Consistency: moral theory that should not contradict itself or have inconsistent moral  judgments -Determinacy: moral theory should give guidance -Intuitive appeal: moral theory should develop and make sense of intuitive beliefs  -Internal support: moral theory should go with our pre-moral theory beliefs -Explanatory power: moral theory should explain why actions are right/wrong -External support: moral theory should go with non-moral beliefs Types of Utilitarianism -Object of evaluation -Act Utilitarianism: act's moral value is determined by the extent to which it actually  produces the good. Bentham's version -Rule Utilitarianism: act's moral value is determined by the extent to which they  conform to rules that lead to the greatest good. Mill's version -Motive Utilitarianism: act's moral value is determined by the tendency of the motive  of the act to produce actions that are productive of the good. -Evaluation method -Average Utilitarianism: tendency to produce the highest average good per person -Total Utilitarianism: tendency to produce the the highest total good -The type of good
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-Hedonistic Utilitarianism: pleasure: all are valued equally -Qualitative Utilitarianism: pleasure: some are superior to others -Preference Utilitarianism: preference satisfaction -Welfare Utilitarianism: well being -Felt-satisfaction Utilitarianism: feeling satisfied -Ideal Utilitarianism: anything that is intrinsically good -Negative Utilitarianism: minimizing of pain/pleasure/bad Aristotelian Virtue Ethics -Virtue: a quality or characteristic of something that makes it a good instance of the kind of  thing it is.
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