Summary of the Research on Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness

Summary of the Research on Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness

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Summary of the Research Findings on the Differences between Males and Females in Leadership Styles and Leadership Effectiveness I. Leadership Styles A. Use of Interpersonal-Oriented Styles and Task-Oriented Styles Results: There were no differences between females and males. B. Use of a Democratic Style and an Autocratic Style Results: Females use a democratic style more than males. C. Evaluations by Followers Results: Females were devalued more than males (1) when females led in an autocratic style, (2) when females occupied typically masculine leadership roles (such as athletic coaching positions and manufacturing plant positions), and (3) when females were evaluated by males. D. Use of Transformational Leadership (Four I’s: Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, and Individualized Consideration) and Transactional Leadership (Contingent Reward, Management by Exception Active and Management by Exception Passive)
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Unformatted text preview: Results: Females tend (1) to be more transformational than males, and (2) to engage in more contingent reward behaviors than males. II. Leadership Effectiveness Results: Females and males were equally effective overall. Females and males were more effective in leadership roles that were congruent with their gender. (Females were less effective than males in leadership roles traditionally seen as masculine, such as positions in military service, and more effective than males in leadership roles traditionally seen as feminine, such as positions in education, government, and social service organizations.) Females were more effective than males in middle management positions (where communal interpersonal skills are highly valued.) Females were less effective than males (1) when females supervised a higher proportion of male subordinates, or (2) when a greater proportion of male raters assessed the leaders performance....
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Summary of the Research on Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness

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