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Unformatted text preview: Results: Females tend (1) to be more transformational than males, and (2) to engage in more contingent reward behaviors than males. II. Leadership Effectiveness Results: Females and males were equally effective overall. Females and males were more effective in leadership roles that were congruent with their gender. (Females were less effective than males in leadership roles traditionally seen as masculine, such as positions in military service, and more effective than males in leadership roles traditionally seen as feminine, such as positions in education, government, and social service organizations.) Females were more effective than males in middle management positions (where communal interpersonal skills are highly valued.) Females were less effective than males (1) when females supervised a higher proportion of male subordinates, or (2) when a greater proportion of male raters assessed the leaders performance....
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- Spring '11